Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 25

July 5, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 25

Pages 3133–3246

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      Solar Cells: Amorphous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) Nanofibers Networks as Photoelectrodes for Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 25/2013) (page 3133)

      Seung-Hoon Choi, Daesub Hwang, Dong-Young Kim, Yann Kervella, Pascale Maldivi, Sung-Yeon Jang, Renaud Demadrille and Il-Doo Kim

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370122

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      Highly porous amorphous Zn2SnO4 electrodes are prepared using electrospinning techniques and combined with organic or ruthenium dyes to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells. As reported by Sung-Yeon Jang, Renaud Demadrille, Il-Doo Kim, and co-workers on page 3146, the devices based on 3-μm-thick electrodes and the organic dyes demonstrate significantly improved performances compared to those using the ruthenium complex. Using this approach, solar cells with power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7% are obtained.

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      Photochemistry: Photochemical Transformation of Fullerenes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 25/2013) (page 3134)

      Jia Wang, Jenny Enevold and Ludvig Edman

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370123

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      On page 3220 Ludvig Edman and co-workers report that the efficiency of the photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation of the fullerene [6,6′]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is strongly dependent on the light intensity. This information is used to demonstrate that direct patterning of electronically active PCBM films can be effectuated by subsecond UV-light exposure. It is demonstrated that the fullerene dimer formation must constitute a bi-excited reaction between two neighboring monomers photoexcited to the triplet state.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 25/2013)

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370124

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 25/2013) (pages 3135–3139)

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370125

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    1. Enhanced and Engineered d0 Ferromagnetism in Molecularly-Thin Zinc Oxide Nanosheets (pages 3140–3145)

      Takaaki Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Ayako Shigeta, Yuki Matsuda, Shinya Hayami, Tetsuya Shimizu, Takeshi Matsui, Teruo Yamazaki, Asami Funatstu, Yukihiro Makinose, Nobuhiro Matsushita, Michio Koinuma and Yasumichi Matsumoto

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202704

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      Dense integration of interfacial ferromagnetic centers in the lamellar structure gives enhanced ferromagnetism to ZnO nanosheets. Anion exchange with dodecyl phosphate layers strongly suppresses ferromagnetic ordering as a result of surface defect passivation while maintaining bulk-like n-type semiconducting properties.

    2. Amorphous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) Nanofibers Networks as Photoelectrodes for Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 3146–3155)

      Seung-Hoon Choi, Daesub Hwang, Dong-Young Kim, Yann Kervella, Pascale Maldivi, Sung-Yeon Jang, Renaud Demadrille and Il-Doo Kim

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203278

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      Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) combining Zn2SnO4 fiber-based photoelectrodes and purely organic sensitizers are fabricated. The highly porous amorphous Zn2SnO4 electrodes are prepared using electrospinning techniques and combined with a new organic dye. Using this strategy, devices that show photovoltaic conversion up to 3.7% are produced. The results rank among the highest reported for devices using ternary metal oxide sensitized electrodes.

    3. Chameleon Nonwovens by Green Electrospinning (pages 3156–3163)

      Elisabeth Giebel, Claudia Mattheis, Seema Agarwal and Andreas Greiner

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201873

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      Electrospun nonwovens with chameleon-type surface properties are obtained by green electrospinning of acrylate dispersions with ionic moieties followed by photo cross-linking. The resulting chameleon nonwovens can be coated by layer-by-layer deposition with a large variety of different functional materials including dyes, antibacterial compounds, silver, and gold nanoparticles.

    4. Rheological and Drying Considerations for Uniformly Gravure-Printed Layers: Towards Large-Area Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3164–3171)

      Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa, Nils Bornemann, Ingo Ringle, Michaela Agari, Edgar Dörsam, Norman Mechau and Uli Lemmer

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202862

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      The interplay between surface tension, viscosity, and drying time of organic semiconducting inks is taken into account to fabricate homogeneous active layers for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by gravure printing. The optimal formulation of the ink is identified when its properties allow a film leveling time shorter that the critical “freezing” time.

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    1. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes: Functionalized Fe-Filled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Multifunctional Scaffolds for Magnetization of Cancer Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 25/2013) (page 3172)

      Riccardo Marega, Federica De Leo, Florent Pineux, Jacopo Sgrignani, Alessandra Magistrato, Anil Damodar Naik, Yann Garcia, Lionel Flamant, Carine Michiels and Davide Bonifazi

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370126

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      Epidermoid carcinoma model cell lines overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR+) can be sorted off and selectively killed from a population of a “healthy” (EGFR-) cell line. On page 3173, Davide Bonifazi and co-workers report that this is due to the combined action of the conjugated targeting antibody and the Fe-filled carbon nanotubes, with the latter exerting a magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

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    1. Functionalized Fe-Filled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Multifunctional Scaffolds for Magnetization of Cancer Cells (pages 3173–3184)

      Riccardo Marega, Federica De Leo, Florent Pineux, Jacopo Sgrignani, Alessandra Magistrato, Anil Damodar Naik, Yann Garcia, Lionel Flamant, Carine Michiels and Davide Bonifazi

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202898

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      Encapsulation of Fe phases inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) allows isolating reactive magnetic phases exerting magnetic fluid hyperthermia responses. In particular, bioconjugation of Fe@MWCNTs with monoclonal antibody Cetuximab enables the selective in vitro cancer cell sorting and stimuli-induced cytotoxicity under application of external magnetic inputs. Molecular dynamics calculations shed further light on binding modes and conformational properties of the Ab moieties linked on to the tubular carbon framework.

    2. Silk as a Multifunctional Biomaterial Substrate for Reduced Glial Scarring around Brain-Penetrating Electrodes (pages 3185–3193)

      Lee W. Tien, Fan Wu, Min D. Tang-Schomer, Euisik Yoon, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203716

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      Silk fibroin is investigated as a novel material for fabricating brain-penetrating electrodes with dynamic mechanical properties and the capacity to deliver sensitive therapeutics. Silk coatings are shown to natively reduce some markers of gliosis in vitro, and a further reduction is demonstrated by encapsulation and release of the enzyme chondroitinase ABC.

    3. Charge-Compensated Compound Defects in Ga-containing Thermoelectric Skutterudites (pages 3194–3203)

      Yuting Qiu, Lili Xi, Xun Shi, Pengfei Qiu, Wenqing Zhang, Lidong Chen, James R. Salvador, Jung Y. Cho, Jihui Yang, Yuan-chun Chien, Sinn-wen Chen, Yinglu Tang and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202571

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      Ga occupies both the void and Sb sites in CoSb3 which is proven by combining first-principles calculations and experiments. The stabilization of the Ga impurity as a compound defect extends the region of skutterudite phase stability toward Ga0.15Co4Sb11.95, whereas the solid–solution region becomes much smaller in other directions of the phase diagram. This compensated defect complex leads to a nearly intrinsic semiconductor with low carrier concentration, and therefore high thermopower, which possesses a much reduced lattice thermal conductivity.

    4. Highly Efficient Greenish-Yellow Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Interzone Exciton Transfer (pages 3204–3211)

      Yi-Lu Chang, Brett A. Kamino, Zhibin Wang, Michael G. Helander, Yingli Rao, Lily Chai, Suning Wang, Timothy P. Bender and Zheng-Hong Lu

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202944

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      A new greenish-yellow emitter is synthesized and a novel device concept is introduced featuring interzone exciton transfer to achieve unprecedented performance: external quantum efficiencies (current efficiencies) of 21.5% (77.4 cd/A) and 20.2% (72.8 cd/A) at 1000 cd/m2 and 5000 cd/m2, respectively, for greenish-yellow emitting phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, which are excellent for displays and solid-state lighting.

    5. Molecular or Nanoscale Structures? The Deciding Factor of Surface Properties on Functionalized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanorod Arrays (pages 3212–3219)

      Hsing-An Lin, Shyh-Chyang Luo, Bo Zhu, Chi Chen, Yoshiro Yamashita and Hsiao-hua Yu

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203006

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      Nanorod arrays of functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are assembled by using an anodic aluminum oxide template directly fabricated on gold-coated silicon wafers. These nanorod arrays are promising for organic electronic and biomedical applications. This approach allows a platform to understand the molecular and nanostructural effect on the surface wettability of these materials.

    6. Photochemical Transformation of Fullerenes (pages 3220–3225)

      Jia Wang, Jenny Enevold and Ludvig Edman

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203386

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      The photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation of the fullerene [6,6′]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is strongly dependent on the light intensity. This is utilized to realize sub-second UV-light induced patterning of electronically active PCBM films. Dimer formation takes place between two monomers photo-excited to the triplet state. These findings challenge the conventional wisdom in the field.

    7. Tuning the Poisson's Ratio of Biomaterials for Investigating Cellular Response (pages 3226–3232)

      Wande Zhang, Pranav Soman, Kyle Meggs, Xin Qu and Shaochen Chen

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202666

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      A methodology to develop suspended structures with tunable Poisson's ratios is reported. Two-photon polymerization is used to fabricate suspended web structures with a negative Poisson's ratio (NPR), based on analytical models. This technique could be used to investigate effects of altering the Poisson's ratio of several photocurable biomaterials on a variety of cellular aspects including morphology, gene expression, and migration using different cell types.

    8. Ultra-Smooth and Ultra-Strong Ion-Exchanged Glass as Substrates for Organic Electronics (pages 3233–3238)

      Daniel Käfer, Mingqian He, Jianfeng Li, Michael S. Pambianchi, Jiangwei Feng, John C. Mauro and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202009

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      An ion-exchanged glass is introduced as a new substrate that is not only virtually unbreakable, therefore overcoming the brittleness that Si wafers possess, but also allows fabrication of high performance organic electronic devices. The smoothness of the surface of this fusion-drawn glass enables favorable large grain growth of the semiconductor, enabling high charge carrier mobilities of all kinds of organic semiconductors, such as pentacene or C60.

    9. Polymer Brush Electrets (pages 3239–3246)

      Xinlei Ma, Zhuang Xie, Zhilu Liu, Xuqing Liu, Tingbing Cao and Zijian Zheng

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203181

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      Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes are demonstrated for the first time as electrets. Micro/nano patterns of electrostatic charges are fabricated on PMMA brushes by conductive microcontact printing and AFM lithography. The electrostatic charges on PMMA brushes are stable enough in organic solvents for guiding the assembly of nanoparticles and directing the dewetting of bulk polymer thin films.

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