Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 29

August 7, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 29

Pages 3597–3709

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      Carbon Nanotubes: Quantum Dot–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Phototransistor with an Enhanced Optical Stark Effect (Adv. Funct. Mater. 29/2013) (page 3597)

      Chandan Biswas, Hyun Jeong, Mun Seok Jeong, Woo Jong Yu, Didier Pribat and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370143

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      A simple and effective way to develop hybrid phototransistors with extraordinary optoelectronic properties is demonstrated by M. S. Jeong, Y. H. Lee and co-workers. On page 3653, they decorate singlewalled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) surfaces with semiconducting quantum dots. This hybrid structure shows a clear negative photoresponse and optical switching behavior, which could be further tuned by applying an external gate bias. Moreover, this hybrid structure shows an enhancement in the ‘optical Stark effect’ without applying any external electric field.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Photonic Crystals: Extreme Optical Properties Tuned Through Phase Substitution in a Structurally Optimized Biological Photonic Polycrystal (Adv. Funct. Mater. 29/2013) (page 3598)

      Xia Wu, Andreas Erbe, Dierk Raabe and Helge-Otto Fabritius

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370144

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      The beetle Entimus imperialis forms photonic crystals with a bicontinuous cubic structure of the diamond type in cuticular scales that show brilliant colors within well-defined domains. On page 3615, H.-O. Fabritius and co-workers report how the beetles tune the structural parameters and composition of these biological photonic crystals to achieve opposite extremes for their optical properties: the brightest colors possible or a colorless appearance.

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      Biosensors: Immobilization of Quantum Dots in Nanostructured Porous Silicon Films: Characterizations and Signal Amplification for Dual-Mode Optical Biosensing (Adv. Funct. Mater. 29/2013) (page 3712)

      Girija Gaur, Dmitry S. Koktysh and Sharon M. Weiss

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370145

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      G. Gaur, D. S. Koktysh, and S. M. Weiss report on page 3604 a dual-mode optical biosensor that incorporates quantum dots as refractive index signal amplifiers and bio-recognition fluorescence probes in a three-dimensional nanoporous silicon matrix. The inherently size-selective nanopores with extremely high surface areas support the highly efficient capture and immobilization of quantum dot-labeled target biomolecules. This approach is promising for sensitive and low-cost point-of-care diagnostics.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 29/2013)

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370146

  5. Contents

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 29/2013) (pages 3599–3603)

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370147

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    1. Immobilization of Quantum Dots in Nanostructured Porous Silicon Films: Characterizations and Signal Amplification for Dual-Mode Optical Biosensing (pages 3604–3614)

      Girija Gaur, Dmitry S. Koktysh and Sharon M. Weiss

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202697

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      White light reflective interferometric spectroscopy and fluorescence measurements are used to implement a novel dual-mode optical porous silicon biosensor. Quantum dots act as signal amplifiers resulting in over an order of magnitude increase in sensor response and providing a secondary means of biomolecule-specific recognition through their distinct fluorescence spectra.

    2. Extreme Optical Properties Tuned Through Phase Substitution in a Structurally Optimized Biological Photonic Polycrystal (pages 3615–3620)

      Xia Wu, Andreas Erbe, Dierk Raabe and Helge-Otto Fabritius

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203597

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      The cuticular photonic polycrystals formed by the beetle Entimus imperialis are a perfect example of a natural diamond-type triply periodic bicontinuous cubic structure with structural parameters that are optimized to open up the largest possible photonic stop gaps. Depending on whether the cuticular network is complemented by air or SiO2, the optical properties of individual domains vary from bright coloration to no coloration and transparency.

    3. Single Pulse Laser-Induced Phase Transitions of PLD-Deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 Films (pages 3621–3627)

      Hongbing Lu, Erik Thelander, Jürgen W. Gerlach, Ulrich Decker, Benpeng Zhu and Bernd Rauschenbach

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202665

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      The effect of laser fluence on the crystalline nature of Ge2Sb2Te5 films is studied in detail. Large structural differences between the laser-irradiated and thermally annealed films are revealed to be caused by the high heating rate and short duration of the laser pulse.

    4. A Mechanistic Study of Wetting Superhydrophobic Porous 3D Meshes (pages 3628–3637)

      Stefan T. Yohe, Jonathan D. Freedman, Eric J. Falde, Yolonda L. Colson and Mark W. Grinstaff

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203111

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      Superhydrophobic, porous, 3D materials composed of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(glycerol monostearate-co-ϵ-caprolactone) (PGC-C18) as a hydrophobic dopant are fabricated using the electrospinning technique. These materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces with maintenance of air at the surface and within the bulk of the material, and, thus, these functional materials can be considered for new applications where time and rate of wetting dictate performance.

    5. Improving Graphene Diffusion Barriers via Stacking Multiple Layers and Grain Size Engineering (pages 3638–3644)

      Susmit Singha Roy and Michael S. Arnold

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203179

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      It is demonstrated that atomistic defects/grain boundaries in monolayer-graphene, grown via chemical vapor deposition, can act as diffusion pathways. Transport through these pathways can be substantially reduced by either independently growing separate membranes of graphene and then stacking them together to decrease the line-of-sight pathways or increasing the internucleation distance/grain-size of the graphene monolayer to reduce the grain boundary density.

    6. Realizing the Potential of ZnO with Alternative Non-Metallic Co-Dopants as Electrode Materials for Small Molecule Optoelectronic Devices (pages 3645–3652)

      Yong Hyun Kim, Jin Soo Kim, Won Mok Kim, Tae-Yeon Seong, Jonghee Lee, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202799

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      ZnO thin films are optimized by co-doping of non-metallic dopants for high optical and electrical performance. The ZnO-based organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) show highly improved efficiencies compared to indium tin oxide (ITO)-based devices. The optimized ZnO films are very promising electrodes for highly efficient and cost-effective OPV cells and OLEDs.

    7. Quantum Dot–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Phototransistor with an Enhanced Optical Stark Effect (pages 3653–3660)

      Chandan Biswas, Hyun Jeong, Mun Seok Jeong, Woo Jong Yu, Didier Pribat and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203469

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple and effective way to develop hybrid phototransistor with extraordinary optoelectronic properties is achieved by decorating semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) surface. This hybrid structure demonstrates clear negative photoresponse and optical switching behavior, which could be further tuned by applying external gate bias in the future. Moreover, this hybrid structure also demonstrates an enhancement in the optical Stark effect without applying any external electric field.

    8. From Melamine-Cyanuric Acid Supramolecular Aggregates to Carbon Nitride Hollow Spheres (pages 3661–3667)

      Young-Si Jun, Eun Zoo Lee, Xinchen Wang, Won Hi Hong, Galen D. Stucky and Arne Thomas

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203732

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      Simple molecular engineering of triazine precursors enables simultaneous optimization of the texture and photoelectric properties of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN). Thermolysis of flower-like supramolecular aggregates of melamine and cyanuric acid yields the formation of mesoporous g-CN hollow spheres with the typical nanosheet-type structure preserved in the microspheres. Such structures are highly active in the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants.

    9. Polymer Grafting by Inkjet Printing: A Direct Chemical Writing Toolset (pages 3668–3674)

      Alexandre Garcia, Nassim Hanifi, Bruno Jousselme, Pascale Jégou, Serge Palacin, Pascal Viel and Thomas Berthelot

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203544

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      A photoassisted and inkjet-printed covalent polymer grafting method based on the photoreduction of aryldiazonium is presented. This powerful and versatile method to obtain local surface functionalization is combined with the ligand induced electroless plating process to obtain metal patterns onto flexible and transparent substrates with excellent mechanical and electrical properties, which may find applications in flexible electronics devices.

    10. A One-Step and Binder-Free Method to Fabricate Hierarchical Nickel-Based Supercapacitor Electrodes with Excellent Performance (pages 3675–3681)

      Guoge Zhang, Wenfang Li, Keyu Xie, Fei Yu and Haitao Huang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203418

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      A hierarchical nickel compound (HNC) film is prepared using a facile, one-step, and binder-free method. The HNC demonstrates both large capacitance and superior rate capability. The capacitance reduction is only 24%, even when the scan rate is increased by 50 times. The HNC also exhibits an excellent cycle life.

    11. Short Synthetic β-Sheet Forming Peptide Amphiphiles as Broad Spectrum Antimicrobials with Antibiofilm and Endotoxin Neutralizing Capabilities (pages 3682–3692)

      Zhan Yuin Ong, Shu Jun Gao and Yi Yan Yang

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202850

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      Synthetic β-sheet folding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) based upon simple recurring amphiphilic sequences of (X1Y1X2Y2)n are designed to enhance their clinical applicability. The peptide length, types of cationic, and hydrophobic residues are systematically varied to identify broad spectrum AMPs with excellent selectivities for microbial membranes. Additionally, the strong antibiofilm and endotoxin neutralization activities of optimized β-sheet forming peptide sequences are demonstrated.

    12. Ultrathin Graphene Nanofiltration Membrane for Water Purification (pages 3693–3700)

      Yi Han, Zhen Xu and Chao Gao

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202601

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      Ultrathin graphene nanofiltration membranes (uGNMs) are fabricated on microporous substrates. These graphene membranes (no more than 53-nm thick) are thin enough to have excellent flexibility and can be bent without any breakage. The uGNMs show high pure water flux and high retention for organic dyes. The dark red Direct Red 81 solution turns into colorless after filtration.

    13. Cathodoluminescence Modulation of ZnS Nanostructures by Morphology, Doping, and Temperature (pages 3701–3709)

      Hui Liu, Linfeng Hu, Kentaro Watanabe, Xinhua Hu, Benjamin Dierre, Bongsoo Kim, Takashi Sekiguchi and Xiaosheng Fang

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203711

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      Cathodoluminescence (CL) modulation of ZnS nanostructures by controlled morphologies, Fe/Mn doping, and measurement temperature is demonstrated. A comprehensive investigation of CL of ZnS nanostructures reveals a sharp UV band-gap emission at room temperature. The ZnS nanostructures show potential applications in luminescent materials as well as short-wavelength nanolaser light sources.

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