Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 32

August 26, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 32

Pages 3945–4056

  1. Cover Picture

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      Ferroelectrics: Universality of Polarization Switching Dynamics in Ferroelectric Capacitors Revealed by 5D Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (Adv. Funct. Mater. 32/2013) (page 3945)

      Yunseok Kim, Xiaoli Lu, Stephen Jesse, Dietrich Hesse, Marin Alexe and Sergei V. Kalinin

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370158

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      Y. Kim, S. V. Kalinin, and co-workers report ferroelectric domain wall motion in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanocapacitors, observed by 5D piezoresponse force microscopy. The nucleation and subsequent domain wall motions are spatially visualized and analyzed on page 3971. A universality of ferroelectric switching is observed to hold both on the spatially averaged level and also locally.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Semiconductors: Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Trioxide and Dichalcogenides (Adv. Funct. Mater. 32/2013) (page 3946)

      Sivacarendran Balendhran, Sumeet Walia, Hussein Nili, Jian Zhen Ou, Serge Zhuiykov, Richard B. Kaner, Sharath Sriram, Madhu Bhaskaran and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370159

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      Alternative two-dimensional semiconductors are sought by by S. Balendhran, K. Kalantar-zadeh, and co-workers. On page 3952, the authors describe the current state of the art of layered, two-dimensional molybdenum trioxide and dichalcogenides, including their fundamental properties, synthesis, and applications. The cover image portrays 2D MoO3 field-effect transistors and MoS2 phototransistors.

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      Liquid Crystals: Nematic Liquid Crystals Embedded in Cubic Microlattices: Memory Effects and Bistable Pixels (Adv. Funct. Mater. 32/2013) (page 4060)

      Francesca Serra, Shane Michael Eaton, Roberto Cerbino, Marco Buscaglia, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Osellame and Tommaso Bellini

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370160

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      S. M. Eaton and co-workers report the first experimental proof of the bistability of nematic liquid crystals incorporated in a porous network with a controlled geometry. This configuration, described in detail on page 3990, is specifically designed to enhance memory effects by inducing a regular arrangement of topological defects. The cover image shows this three dimensional porous network, fabricated by femtosecond laser lithography, with the incorporated liquid crystals. This composite material could be exploited for future ultralow-power bistable displays.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 32/2013)

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370161

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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  6. Feature Article

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    1. Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Trioxide and Dichalcogenides (pages 3952–3970)

      Sivacarendran Balendhran, Sumeet Walia, Hussein Nili, Jian Zhen Ou, Serge Zhuiykov, Richard B. Kaner, Sharath Sriram, Madhu Bhaskaran and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300125

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      In the quest for alternative two-dimensional semiconductors, layered molybdenum trioxide and dichalcogenides are gaining significant scientific interest. This Feature Article delivers a comprehensive review of the fundamental properties, synthesis techniques, and applications of layered MoO3, MoS2, MoSe2, and MoTe2 as well as exploring their future prospects in the field of two-dimensional semiconductors.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    7. Feature Article
    8. Full Papers
    1. Universality of Polarization Switching Dynamics in Ferroelectric Capacitors Revealed by 5D Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (pages 3971–3979)

      Yunseok Kim, Xiaoli Lu, Stephen Jesse, Dietrich Hesse, Marin Alexe and Sergei V. Kalinin

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300079

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      Ferroelectric polarization switching is sensitively affected by phenomena on multiple length scales, giving rise to complex voltage- and time-controlled behavior. Spatially resolved switching dynamics in ferroelectric nanocapacitors are explored as a function of voltage pulse time and magnitude. A remarkable persistence of formal macroscopic scaling laws for polarization switching based on classical models down to nanoscale volumes is observed.

    2. Bright White Scattering from Protein Spheres in Color Changing, Flexible Cuttlefish Skin (pages 3980–3989)

      Lydia M. Mäthger, Stephen L. Senft, Meng Gao, Sinan Karaveli, George R. R. Bell, Rashid Zia, Alan M. Kuzirian, Patrick B. Dennis, Wendy J. Crookes-Goodson, Rajesh R. Naik, George W. Kattawar and Roger T. Hanlon

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203705

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      White light scattering cells in the flexible skin of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are described. How the structure and composition of leucophores serve as passive reflectors approximating optical properties of a broadband Lambertian surface is investigated. The cuttlefish system may provide a template for bio-inspired approaches to efficient light scattering in materials science and optical engineering.

    3. Nematic Liquid Crystals Embedded in Cubic Microlattices: Memory Effects and Bistable Pixels (pages 3990–3994)

      Francesca Serra, Shane Michael Eaton, Roberto Cerbino, Marco Buscaglia, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Osellame and Tommaso Bellini

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203792

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      Nematic liquid crystals confined inside cubic scaffolds made by two-photon polymerization exhibit bistability and large memory effects in response to electric fields, due to topological defects interacting with the solid structure. When viewed through crossed polarizers, the pixels, which are initially bright, remain dark after the application of strong electric fields.

    4. Magnetomechanical Four-State Memory (pages 3995–4001)

      Chad S. Watson, Courtney Hollar, Kimball Anderson, William B. Knowlton and Peter Müllner

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203015

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      The magnetic shape memory alloy, Ni-Mn-Ga, is shown to exhibit multi-bit non-volatile memory behavior. Using nanoindentation, local modifications of the magnetic stray field enable the patterning of magnetic information. Four magnetic-based memory states are demonstrated due to magnetic field or stress-induced twin rearrangement along two crystal orientations, each with two possible magnetic orientations.

    5. Molten-Salt-Assisted Self-Assembly (MASA)-Synthesis of Mesoporous Metal Titanate-Titania, Metal Sulfide-Titania, and Metal Selenide-Titania Thin Films (pages 4002–4010)

      Cüneyt Karakaya, Yurdanur Türker and Ömer Dag

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202716

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      High quality mesoporous metal titanate thin films are synthesized using a molten-phase-assisted self-assembly (MASA) method. The metal salts are used as a non-volatile solvent in the new assembly process. The films are converted into mesoporous titania-metal chalcogenides (TiO2-CdS, TiO2-CdSe, and TiO2-ZnSe) under H2S or H2Se at room temperature and may find applications in solar cells, catalysis, photocatalysis, electronics, and optoelectronics.

    6. Photochemical Generation of Light Responsive Surfaces (pages 4011–4019)

      Eva Blasco, Milagros Piñol, Luis Oriol, Bernhard V. K. J. Schmidt, Alexander Welle, Vanessa Trouillet, Michael Bruns and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203602

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      Patterned photoswitchable surfaces are prepared by employing a nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole ene cycloaddition (NITEC) photoinduced process in the presence of dipolarophiles based on photoresponsive azobenzene moieties. Trans-to-cis azobenzene isomerization of the surface allows for the spatially resolved tuning of the surface properties.

    7. Stretching-Induced Growth of PEDOT-Rich Cores: A New Mechanism for Strain-Dependent Resistivity Change in PEDOT:PSS Films (pages 4020–4027)

      Yoo-Yong Lee, Ji-Hoon Lee, Ju-Young Cho, Na-Rae Kim, Dae-Hyun Nam, In-Suk Choi, Ki Tae Nam and Young-Chang Joo

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203670

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      Tensile strain-resistivity response of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films is investigated according to doping with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) up to 60% strain without crack generation. The resistivity can be modulated under strain from invariant values to decreasing values up to 80%. The growth of conductive PEDOT-rich cores is the primary mechanism for the decrease in resistivity induced by applied strain.

    8. Creation of Ghost Illusions Using Wave Dynamics in Metamaterials (pages 4028–4034)

      Wei Xiang Jiang, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Tiancheng Han, Shuang Zhang and Tie Jun Cui

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203806

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      A functional “ghost” illusion device that uses inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials and is capable of creating multiple virtual images off the original object's position under the illumination of electromagnetic waves is presented. The scattering signature of the object is thus perceived as multiple targets with different geometries and compositions.

    9. Coordinatable and High Charge-Carrier-Mobility Water-Soluble Conjugated Copolymers for Effective Aqueous-Processed Polymer–Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells and OFET Applications (pages 4035–4042)

      Haotong Wei, Hao Zhang, Gan Jin, Tianyi Na, Guoyan Zhang, Xue Zhang, Yan Wang, Haizhu Sun, Wenjing Tian and Bai Yang

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300333

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      A new type of water-soluble conjugated polymer composed of poly[(3,4-dibromo-2,5-thienylene vinylene)-co-(p-phenylene-vinylene)] (PBTPV) is synthesized. Its excellent film-forming properties, stability, and photoelectric response show good potential for organic field-effect transistor and aqueous-processable hybrid solar cell applications. The carrier mobility of the aqueous PBTPV is about 5 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1 and the power conversion efficiency of the water-processed PBTPV/CdTe nanocrystal hybrid photovoltaic devices reaches 3.3%.

    10. Graphene/SiO2/p-GaN Diodes: An Advanced Economical Alternative for Electrically Tunable Light Emitters (pages 4043–4048)

      Che-Wei Chang, Wei-Chun Tan, Meng-Lin Lu, Tai-Chun Pan, Ying-Jay Yang and Yang-Fang Chen

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203035

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      Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) light- emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of a graphene electrode on p-GaN substrate separated by an insulating SiO2 layer are reported. The novel MIS-LEDs have a unique tunability of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra depending on the bias conditions. The underlying mechanism can be interpreted as the tunneling of electrons and holes through the insulating layer in both polarities, which is different from the standard p-n junction model.

    11. Controlled Growth of Porous α-Fe2O3 Branches on β-MnO2 Nanorods for Excellent Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 4049–4056)

      Xin Gu, Liang Chen, Zhicheng Ju, Huayun Xu, Jian Yang and Yitai Qian

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203779

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      Branched nanorods with α-Fe2O3 as the branches and β-MnO2 as the stems are synthesized by the high-temperature annealing of FeOOH epitaxially grown on the β-MnO2 nanorods. These branched nanorods present an excellent lithium-storage performance in terms of reversible capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability.

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