Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 40

October 25, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 40

Pages 4989–5097

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      Carbon Nanotubes: In Situ Monitoring the Role of Working Metal Catalyst Nanoparticles for Ultrahigh Purity Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 40/2013) (page 4989)

      Tian-Chi Chen, Meng-Qiang Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Gui-Li Tian, Jia-Qi Huang and Fei Wei

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370201

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      The role of metal catalysts in the creation of ultrapure single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNCTs) is explored by Q. Zhang, F. Wei, and co-workers on page 5066. They promote efficient growth of SWCNTs via partial oxidation of metal@C nanoparticles by CO2, and subsequent acid treatment. This in situ study of the chemical vapor deposition growth and CO2 oxidation of SWCNTs reveals in real-time that the key lies in the low content of nanocarbon impurities and the catalytic oxidation being performed in the proper operation windows.

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      Solar Cells: Film Morphology of High Efficiency Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 40/2013) (page 4990)

      John A. Love, Christopher M. Proctor, Jianhua Liu, Christopher J. Takacs, Alexander Sharenko, Thomas S. van der Poll, Alan J. Heeger, Guillermo C. Bazan and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370202

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      Structural characterization of high-efficiency molecular organic solar cells using high resolution transmission electron microscopy is performed by G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and co-workers. On page 5019, these characterizations reveal welldefined, wire-like crystalline donor domains. Single crystal diffraction experiments of the donor material provide detailed information on the solid-state molecular orientation and packing within the wires and thereby provide unprecedented molecularlevel insight applicable for designing the next generation of energy conversion materials.

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      Graphene: Evidence for Edge-State Photoluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots (Adv. Funct. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5100)

      Kiran Lingam, Ramakrishna Podila, Haijun Qian, Steven Serkiz and Apparao M. Rao

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370203

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      The cover depicts a high-resolution transmission electron image of a graphene quantum dot. Graphene quantum dots exhibit strong photoluminescence in the visible spectral region. This photoluminescence is investigated by A. M. Rao and co-workers on page 5062, who determine that it stems from their edge states. They can be used in a wide range of applications ranging from biomedical imaging to energy-related devices. Artwork by Dr. Robert Johnson.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 40/2013)

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370204

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    1. Versatile Graphene-Promoting Photocatalytic Performance of Semiconductors: Basic Principles, Synthesis, Solar Energy Conversion, and Environmental Applications (pages 4996–5008)

      Wenguang Tu, Yong Zhou and Zhigang Zou

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203547

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      Wenguang Tu obtained his BS degree in 2010 from Southwest University, China. He is pursuing his PhD degree under the guidance of Prof. Yong Zhou in ERERC, School of Physics, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, China. His current research involves the synthesis of graphene-based nanomaterials for photocatalysis application.

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      Smart Nanotubes: Light-Switchable Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based on Host–Guest Chemistry (Adv. Funct. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5009)

      Zanru Guo, Yujun Feng, Dingwei Zhu, Shuai He, Hanbin Liu, Xiangrong Shi, Jing Sun and Meizhen Qu

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370206

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      A simple way to develop single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids with ‘smart’ light-switchable properties is demonstrated by Y. Feng and co-workers. On page 5010, they decorate SWNT surfaces with pyrene-containing cyclodextrins via π–π stacking. After adding azobenzene-modified poly(ethylene oxide), the SWNT hybrids are not only well dispersed in pure water through host-guest interactions, but also exhibit switchable dispersion/aggregation states upon alternating irradiation of UV and visible light.

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    1. Light-Switchable Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based on Host–Guest Chemistry (pages 5010–5018)

      Zanru Guo, Yujun Feng, Dingwei Zhu, Shuai He, Hanbin Liu, Xiangrong Shi, Jing Sun and Meizhen Qu

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300434

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      A new type of “smart” single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is created by combining reversible host–guest interaction and noncovalent π–π stacking. The SWNTs hybrids not only are well dispersed in pure water, but they also exhibit switchable dispersion/aggregation states upon the alternate irradiation with UV and visible light in pure water.

    2. Film Morphology of High Efficiency Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells (pages 5019–5026)

      John A. Love, Christopher M. Proctor, Jianhua Liu, Christopher J. Takacs, Alexander Sharenko, Thomas S. van der Poll, Alan J. Heeger, Guillermo C. Bazan and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300099

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      Morphological control over the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) microstructure of a small-molecule photovoltaic system is demonstrated using thermal treatment and solvent additives. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are utilized to investigate solid-state interactions and the BHJ morphology. Domain size and molecular order are crucial to achieving the 7.0% power conversion efficiency and over 90% internal quantum efficiency exhibited under optimized conditions.

    3. Probing Bias-Dependent Electrochemical Gas–Solid Reactions in (LaxSr1–x)CoO3–δ Cathode Materials (pages 5027–5036)

      Amit Kumar, Francesco Ciucci, Donovan Leonard, Stephen Jesse, Mike Biegalski, Hans Christen, Eva Mutoro, Ethan Crumlin, Yang Shao-Horn, Albina Borisevich and Sergei V. Kalinin

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202401

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      Spatial variability of bias-dependent electrochemical processes on a (La0.5Sr0.5)2CoOδ modified (LaxSr1–x)CoO3–δ surface is studied using first-order reversal curve method in electrochemical strain microscopy. Reversible oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) is activated at voltages as low as 3–4 V. The degree of bias-induced transformation increases with applied bias. ORR/OER is shown to be activated in grains at relatively low biases and larger voltages at grain boundaries.

  9. Frontispiece

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      Field Emission: Excellent Field-Emission Performances of Neodymium Hexaboride (NdB6) Nanoneedles with Ultra-Low Work Functions (Adv. Funct. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5037)

      Junqi Xu, Guanghua Hou, Takao Mori, Huiqiao Li, Yanrui Wang, Yangyang Chang, Yongsong Luo, Benhai Yu, Ying Ma and Tianyou Zhai

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370207

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      On page 5038 J. Q. Xu, T. Y. Zhai and co-workers develop an effective chemical vapor deposition process to fabricate high-quality NdB6 nanoneedles with an ultra-low work function. These nanoneedles exhibit excellent field-emission performance with a low turn-on/threshold field, a high current density, and good stability. Such a simple synthesized procedure can be readily extended to the synthesis of RB6 (R = rare earth) and related boride nanostructures.

  10. Full Papers

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    1. Excellent Field-Emission Performances of Neodymium Hexaboride (NdB6) Nanoneedles with Ultra-Low Work Functions (pages 5038–5048)

      Junqi Xu, Guanghua Hou, Takao Mori, Huiqiao Li, Yanrui Wang, Yangyang Chang, Yongsong Luo, Benhai Yu, Ying Ma and Tianyou Zhai

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm201301980

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      High-quality low-work-function NdB6 nanostructures with different morphologies, e.g., curved nanowires, nanorods, nanowires, and nanoneedles, are successfully fabricated via a catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition process. The field-emission measurements are investigated systematically, and the field-enhancement factor, turn-on, and threshold field changes are analyzed as a function of morphology and temperature. These systematic experiments should facilitate NdB6 nanomaterial application in novel field-emission devices.

    2. Work-Function Engineering of Graphene Anode by Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide Doping for Efficient Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 5049–5055)

      Donghyuk Kim, Dongchan Lee, Yonghee Lee and Duk Young Jeon

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm201301386

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      A flexible polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) is demonstrated by using a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA, ([CF3SO2]2NH)) doped graphene anode. Due to a reduced hole-injection barrier from the graphene anode to the hole-transport layer, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the PLED are markedly higher than those of PLEDs fabricated on pristine graphene anode and comparable to those of an ITO anode.

    3. Maximizing the Energy Density of Dielectric Elastomer Generators Using Equi-Biaxial Loading (pages 5056–5061)

      Jiangshui Huang, Samuel Shian, Zhigang Suo and David R. Clarke

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300402

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      A thin sheet of acrylic elastomer, coated with black carbon conductive grease on both sides, is equi-biaxially stretched by applying radial forces to its circumference. In its unstretched state, the elastomer thickness is 0.5 mm, and the electroded radius is 2.0 cm corresponding to a mass of dielectric elastomer of 0.60 g.

    4. Evidence for Edge-State Photoluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots (pages 5062–5065)

      Kiran Lingam, Ramakrishna Podila, Haijun Qian, Steven Serkiz and Apparao M. Rao

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203441

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      The origin of the photoluminescence (PL) behavior of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) is investigated. Following a series of annealing experiments designed to passivate the free edges, the PL in GQDs originates from edge-states, and an edge-passivation subsequent to synthesis quenches the PL.

    5. In Situ Monitoring the Role of Working Metal Catalyst Nanoparticles for Ultrahigh Purity Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 5066–5073)

      Tian-Chi Chen, Meng-Qiang Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Gui-Li Tian, Jia-Qi Huang and Fei Wei

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300614

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      Ultrahigh purity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNCTs) with a carbon content of 99.5 wt% are formed by efficient growth of SWCNTs and partial oxidation of metal@Cnanoparticles that is based on the in situ monitoring the role of working metal catalyst nanoparticles during chemical vapor deposition growth and CO2 purification of SWCNTs.

    6. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Graphene/MnO2 Nanospheres and Graphene/MoO3 Nanosheets with High Energy Density (pages 5074–5083)

      Jian Chang, Meihua Jin, Fei Yao, Tae Hyung Kim, Viet Thong Le, Hongyan Yue, Fethullah Gunes, Bing Li, Arunabha Ghosh, Sishen Xie and Young Hee Lee

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm201301851

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      Asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density are fabricated using self-assembled graphene/MnO2 as a positive electrode and graphene/MoO3 (GrMoO3) as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolyte. Choosing metal oxides with a large work function difference, the operating voltage is expanded to 2.0 V in spite of the use of the aqueous electrolyte, with a high energy density of 42.6 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 276 W kg−1 and a maximum capacitance of 307 F g−1.

    7. A Versatile Fluoro-Containing Low-Bandgap Polymer for Efficient Semitransparent and Tandem Polymer Solar Cells (pages 5084–5090)

      Chih-Yu Chang, Lijian Zuo, Hin-Lap Yip, Yongxi Li, Chang-Zhi Li, Chain-Shu Hsu, Yen-Ju Cheng, Hongzheng Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm201301557

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      The versatility of a fluoro-containing polymer, PCPDTFBT, in diverse organic photovoltaic applications is demonstrated. By combining morphological, interface, and device engineering, the single-junction cell shows both a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.6% and good air stability. In addition, the applications of PCPDTFBT in highly efficient semitransparent cells (PCE = 5.0%, average visible transmittance (AVT) = 47.3%) and double-junction tandem cells (PCE = 8.2%) are also demonstrated.

    8. Dual Acid-Responsive Micelle-Forming Anticancer Polymers as New Anticancer Therapeutics (pages 5091–5097)

      Byungkuk Kim, Eunsun Lee, Yerang Kim, Sanga Park, Gilson Khang and Dongwon Lee

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm201300871

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      Cinnamaldehyde is a major component of cinnamon and is known to exert anticancer effects by generating reactive oxygen species. In this work, cinnamaldehyde is polymerized to generate polymers (PCAE) which self-assemble to form micelles. PCAE micelles exert synergistic anticancer effects with a payload of anticancer drugs and have great potential as novel anticancer therapeutics.

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