Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 44

November 26, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 44

Pages 5453–5563

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      Biomedical Applications: Liver-Specific and Echogenic Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles Facilitating Liver Cancer Discrimination (Adv. Funct. Mater. 44/2013) (page 5453)

      Hyun Su Min, Sejin Son, Tae Woong Lee, Heebeom Koo, Hong Yeol Yoon, Jin Hee Na, Yongseok Choi, Jae Hyung Park, Jaeyoung Lee, Moon Hee Han, Rang-Woon Park, In-San Kim, Seo Young Jeong, Kyehan Rhee, Sun Hwa Kim, Ick Chan Kwon and Kwangmeyung Kim

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370223

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      On page 5518, an ultralong-acting, liver-specific, ultrasound contrast agent is presented in the form of self-assembled, echogenic hyaluronic acid nanoparticles. I. C. Kwon, K. Kim, and co-workers use hydrophobic interactions and an oilin-water emulsification method to encapsulate bioinert and hydrophobic perfluoropentane as an ultrasound gas precursor into the nanoparticles. These particles are more stable and robust echogenic solid bodies than the conventional microbubbles, with an in vivo favorable hydrodynamic size.

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      Li-Ion Batteries: Oxygen Vacancies and Ordering of d-levels Control Voltage Suppression in Oxide Cathodes: the Case of Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ (Adv. Funct. Mater. 44/2013) (page 5454)

      Peter V. Sushko, Kevin M. Rosso, Ji-Guang Zhang, Jun Liu and Maria L. Sushko

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370224

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      A microscopic model for voltage suppression in complex transition metal oxides is proposed by M. L. Sushko and co-workers based on careful analysis of the electronic structure and electrostatic potential in one of the most promising cathode materials—LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—as a case study. On page 5530, ab initio simulations reveal that the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and similar transition metal oxides can be finely tuned by controlling the concentration of oxygen vacancies.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 44/2013)

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370225

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      Tissue Engineering: Toward Strong and Tough Glass and Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair (Adv. Funct. Mater. 44/2013) (page 5460)

      Qiang Fu, Eduardo Saiz, Mohamed N. Rahaman and Antoni P. Tomsia

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370227

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      The quest for implants for bone repair and regeneration is driving the development of synthetic scaffolds with the requisite strength and toughness. With inspiration taken from natural materials such as bone and nacre, bioactive glass and ceramic scaffolds with outstanding mechanical performances are created by Q. Fu, A. P. Tomsia, and co-workers on page 5461.

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    1. Toward Strong and Tough Glass and Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair (pages 5461–5476)

      Qiang Fu, Eduardo Saiz, Mohamed N. Rahaman and Antoni P. Tomsia

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301121

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      Fundamental understanding of the processing-structure-property relationships of porous glass and ceramic scaffolds is critical for the creation of strong and tough implants. Recent developments in the use of design principles and novel fabrication technologies are paving the way to the fabrication of synthetic scaffolds of isotropic, anisotropic, and periodic architectures with promising potential for bone repair.

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    1. Direct Evidence of Cation Disorder in Thermoelectric Lead Chalcogenides PbTe and PbS (pages 5477–5483)

      Sofie Kastbjerg, Niels Bindzus, Martin Søndergaard, Simon Johnsen, Nina Lock, Mogens Christensen, Masaki Takata, Mark A. Spackman and Bo Brummerstedt Iversen

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300722

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      Analysis of synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data provides detailed insight into the atomic disorder responsible for the extraordinary low thermal conductivities in the thermoelectric lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbS.

    2. High Performance Multi-Level Non-Volatile Polymer Memory with Solution-Blended Ferroelectric Polymer/High-k Insulators for Low Voltage Operation (pages 5484–5493)

      Sun Kak Hwang, Insung Bae, Suk Man Cho, Richard Hahnkee Kim, Hee Joon Jung and Cheolmin Park

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300372

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      Low voltage operation of a polymer ferroelectric field effect transistor memory with multilevel data storage states is realized with a high dielectric constant (k) ferroelectric gate insulator based on simple binary solution blending of a ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) and a relaxer high-k poly(vinylidene-fluoride–trifluoroethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene). The device shows discrete six-level multi-state operation with excellent data retention and endurance of each state.

    3. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Performance of [MTBD][beti]-Encapsulated Nanoporous NiPt Alloy Nanoparticles (pages 5494–5501)

      Joshua Snyder, Kenneth Livi and Jonah Erlebacher

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301144

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      Nanoporous Ni/Pt nanoparticles exhibit mass activities nearly an order of magnitude higher than Pt/C when encapsulated with [MTBD][beti] ionic liquids, both in half-cell measurements and fuel cell testing.

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      Highly Transmissive Carbon Nanotube Forests Grown at Low Substrate Temperature (pages 5502–5509)

      José V. Anguita, David C. Cox, Muhammad Ahmad, Y. Y. Tan, Jeremy Allam and S. Ravi P. Silva

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300400

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      Although carbon nanotube forests are synonymous with optical opaqueness, the growth of up to 20 μm tall forests is shown, featuring optical transparency in the visible and infrared light ranges. Additionally, they are grown on heat-sensitive substrates below 300 °C, opening prospects for carbon optoelectronics. It is shown that transparency occurs in the visible light range by light channelling through subwavelength voids in the forests, acting as waveguides.

  8. Frontispiece

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      Sensors: Photosensor Device Based on Few-Layered WS2 Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 44/2013) (page 5510)

      Néstor Perea-López, Ana Laura Elías, Ayse Berkdemir, Andres Castro-Beltran, Humberto R. Gutiérrez, Simin Feng, Ruitao Lv, Takuya Hayashi, Florentino López-Urías, Sujoy Ghosh, Baleeswaraiah Muchharla, Saikat Talapatra, Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370228

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      M. Terrones and co-workers design a photodetector consisting of a few-layered WS2 film on quartz with Au/Ti contacts. On page 5511, different laser wavelengths are applied perpendicularly to the film. The few-layered films of WS2 are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and the photodevices exhibit very fast responses (on the order of 5 ms). The excellent response of few-layered WS2 to detect different photon wavelengths over a wide range of intensities makes it a strong candidate for constructing novel optoelectronic devices.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    1. Photosensor Device Based on Few-Layered WS2 Films (pages 5511–5517)

      Néstor Perea-López, Ana Laura Elías, Ayse Berkdemir, Andres Castro-Beltran, Humberto R. Gutiérrez, Simin Feng, Ruitao Lv, Takuya Hayashi, Florentino López-Urías, Sujoy Ghosh, Baleeswaraiah Muchharla, Saikat Talapatra, Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300760

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      A few-layer WS2 photosensor shows variations in the conduction current by switching a laser on and off. An extensive study reveals that few-layered WS2 grown by CVD can be used as an efficient light sensor in the visible spectral region for a wide range of incident intensities with a fast response in the order of a few milliseconds (e.g., 5.3 ms).

    2. Liver-Specific and Echogenic Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles Facilitating Liver Cancer Discrimination (pages 5518–5529)

      Hyun Su Min, Sejin Son, Tae Woong Lee, Heebeom Koo, Hong Yeol Yoon, Jin Hee Na, Yongseok Choi, Jae Hyung Park, Jaeyoung Lee, Moon Hee Han, Rang-Woon Park, In-San Kim, Seo Young Jeong, Kyehan Rhee, Sun Hwa Kim, Ick Chan Kwon and Kwangmeyung Kim

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301131

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      A new species of echogenic hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles is presented as an ultralong-acting, liver-specific, ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) that is distinct from conventional gas-filled microbubbles. The approach of utilizing preformulated solid nanoparticles as templates to load liquid gas precursors provides advantages in the construction of a long-acting UCAs and greatly improved echogenic properties are observed.

    3. Oxygen Vacancies and Ordering of d-levels Control Voltage Suppression in Oxide Cathodes: the Case of Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ (pages 5530–5535)

      Peter V. Sushko, Kevin M. Rosso, Ji-Guang Zhang, Jun Liu and Maria L. Sushko

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301205

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      The complex correlation between the structure of oxygen deficient spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ and its ion and electron transport properties is revealed through first principles simulations. It is shown that neutral oxygen vacancies promote cation disorder leading to the creation of deep and shallow Mn3+ states, responsible for high and low voltage regions on the voltage–capacity curves.

    4. Polymer Nanocomposites Containing Carbon Nanofibers as Soft Printable Sensors Exhibiting Strain-Reversible Piezoresistivity (pages 5536–5542)

      Hatice A. K. Toprakci, Saral K. Kalanadhabhatla, Richard J. Spontak and Tushar K. Ghosh

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300034

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      The incorporation of carbon nanofibers into plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) or poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers yields conductive nanocomposites that can be printed on fabrics to produce electronic textiles (e.g., strain sensors). Upon strain cycling, the nanofibers undergo reorientation and subsequent separation, causing the nanocomposites to exhibit strain-reversible piezoresistivity.

    5. And Yet it Moves! Microfluidics Without Channels and Troughs (pages 5543–5549)

      Francesca Lugli, Giulia Fioravanti, Denise Pattini, Luca Pasquali, Monica Montecchi, Denis Gentili, Mauro Murgia, Zahra Hemmatian, Massimiliano Cavallini and Francesco Zerbetto

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300913

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      A simple and versatile procedure, based on the immersion method, is developed to fabricate chemical gradients on Si/SiO2 surfaces by using a silane self-assembly monolayer. The spontaneous motion of water droplet is demonstrated and the results are rationalized by dissipative particle dynamics simulations that shows that the intrinsic nature of the gradient affects the velocity of the motion.

    6. Extremely Low Operating Voltage Green Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices (pages 5550–5555)

      Hisahiro Sasabe, Hiromi Nakanishi, Yuichiro Watanabe, Shogo Yano, Masakatsu Hirasawa, Yong-Jin Pu and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301069

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      Green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating below a theoretical limit of the energy gap voltage with high external quantum efficiency over 20% are developed. An optimized OLED operates clearly below the energy gap voltage of 2.38 V showing 100 cd m−2 at 2.25 V and 5000 cd m−2 at 2.95 V without any light outcoupling enhancement techniques.

    7. Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Electrode Produces a Near-Symmetrical Alternating Current from Photosynthetic Protein-Based Photoelectrochemical Cells (pages 5556–5563)

      Swee Ching Tan, Feng Yan, Lucy I. Crouch, John Robertson, Michael R. Jones and Mark E. Welland

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301057

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      The effect of varying the material forming the back electrode in a protein-based photoelectrochemical cell that produces an alternating current under discontinuous illumination is explored. A near-symmetrical alternating current is obtained by constructing a biohybrid cell in which this back electrode is formed from a layer of superhydrophobic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

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