Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 8

Special Issue: Grand Challenges in Energy Storage

February 25, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 8

Pages 917–1089

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      Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Cycling Characteristics of Lithium Powder Polymer Batteries Assembled with Composite Gel Polymer Electrolytes and Lithium Powder Anode (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2013) (page 917)

      Yoon-Sung Lee, Jae Ha Lee, Ji-Ae Choi, Woo Young Yoon and Dong-Won Kim

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370037

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      As lithium ion sources of a single ion conductor, core–shell structured SiO2(Li+) nanoparticles with uniform spherical shape are synthesized and used as functional fillers in composite polymer electrolytes. As reported on page 1019 by Woo Young Yoon, Dong-Won Kim, and co-workers, the composite polymer electrolytes prepared with SiO2(Li+) particles exhibit high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength and are used to prepare thin films for high performance lithium powder polymer batteries.

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      Cathode Materials: Phosphorous Pentasulfide as a Novel Additive for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2013) (page 918)

      Zhan Lin, Zengcai Liu, Wujun Fu, Nancy J. Dudney and Chengdu Liang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370038

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      Phosphorous pentasulfide (P2S5) is discovered to be a novel electrolyte additive for high-energy lithiumsulfur (Li-S) batteries. P2S5 passivates the surface of metallic lithium anodes, promotes the dissolution of Li2S, blocks the polysulfide shuttle, and thus enables long battery cycle-life. On page 1064, Chengdu Liang and co-workers demonstrate that with a theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh/kg, which is about 3–5 times higher than that of the lithium-ion batteries, Li-S batteries are promising for the next generation of high-energy batteries for large scale energy storage.

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      Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: An Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Battery (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1092)

      Junghoon Kim, Dong-Ju Lee, Hun-Gi Jung, Yang-Kook Sun, Jusef Hassoun and Bruno Scrosati

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370039

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      On page 1076, Yang-Kook Sun, Jusef Hassoun, Bruno Scrosati, and co-workers report and characterize a hard carbon spherules-sulfur electrode that is prepared by impregnation of crystalline sulfur into the carbon spheres through melting and thermal treatment. This material demonstrates very high capacity and rate capability, and is therefore proposed as a new generation cathode to drive electric vehicles over a long range.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2013)

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370040

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2013) (pages 919–923)

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370041

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    1. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid (pages 929–946)

      Jun Liu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Zhenguo Yang, John P. Lemmon, Carl Imhoff, Gordon L. Graff, Liyu Li, Jianzhi Hu, Chongmin Wang, Jie Xiao, Gordon Xia, Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, Suresh Baskaran, Vincent Sprenkle, Xiaolin Li, Yuyan Shao and Birgit Schwenzer

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200690

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      The different applications of energy storage, different technologies, and the cost requirements from the kilowatt to gigawatt scale are compared. Li-ion batteries have attracted attention for transportation storage, while many other technologies are considered for stationary applications.

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      Sodium-Ion Batteries (pages 947–958)

      Michael D. Slater, Donghan Kim, Eungje Lee and Christopher S. Johnson

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200691

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      The research and development of ambient temperature Na-ion batteries is progressing quickly and is now poised to penetrate the energy storage landscape. The combination of new electrode materials, electrochemical couples, and engineering advances coupled with a potential for low-cost and long-life make them attractive candidates for grid storage.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Vol. 23, Issue 26, 3255, Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013

    3. Titanium-Based Anode Materials for Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 959–969)

      Zonghai Chen, Ilias Belharouak, Y.-K. Sun and Khalil Amine

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200698

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      Nanostructured titanium-based oxide materials have been long pursued as anode materials for safe, extremely long life, and high power lithium-ion batteries. The outstanding safety and electrochemical performance of titanium-based anodes originates from their relatively high working potential, much higher than the potential needed for graphitic anodes, to form solid electrolyte interphase. Compared to graphite, lithiated titanium-based anodes release a substantially smaller amount of heat under abuse conditions.

    4. Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development (pages 970–986)

      Wei Wang, Qingtao Luo, Bin Li, Xiaoliang Wei, Liyu Li and Zhenguo Yang

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200694

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      With its unique configuration and mechanism, the redox flow battery technique is considered to be one of the most promising technologies for large-scale stationary energy storage. Recent progress in the research and development of redox flow battery cell-level components is highlighted, including electrolytes, electrodes, and membranes for both aqueous and non-aqueous systems.

    5. Making Li-Air Batteries Rechargeable: Material Challenges (pages 987–1004)

      Yuyan Shao, Fei Ding, Jie Xiao, Jian Zhang, Wu Xu, Sehkyu Park, Ji-Guang Zhang, Yong Wang and Jun Liu

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200688

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      Rechargeable lithium-air batteries could potentially provide an energy storage capacity of three to five times that of current Li-ion batteries. However, significant material challenges exist for each of its components, among which are electrolytes, cathodes/catalysts, anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes for oxygen supply.

    6. Main Challenges for High Performance NAS Battery: Materials and Interfaces (pages 1005–1018)

      Zhaoyin Wen, Yingying Hu, Xiangwei Wu, Jinduo Han and Zhonghua Gu

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200473

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      The key materials and the main interfaces in sodium-sulfer (NAS) batteries, which are among the most important factors determining the performances and cost of the battery, are reviewed. Some of the latest research results for NAS battery materials and interfaces are presented. The outlook for future research directions is also discussed.

  8. Full Papers

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    1. Cycling Characteristics of Lithium Powder Polymer Batteries Assembled with Composite Gel Polymer Electrolytes and Lithium Powder Anode (pages 1019–1027)

      Yoon-Sung Lee, Jae Ha Lee, Ji-Ae Choi, Woo Young Yoon and Dong-Won Kim

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200692

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      Composite gel polymer electrolytes exhibiting high ionic conductivity and good mechanical stability are prepared and characterized. Core-shell structured SiO2(Li+) nanoparticles of uniform spherical shape are used as functional fillers in the composite gel polymer electrolytes. Lithium powder polymer batteries composed of a lithium powder anode and a LiV3O8 cathode deliver a high discharge capacity and exhibit good capacity retention.

    2. Formation of a Continuous Solid-Solution Particle and its Application to Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 1028–1036)

      Hyung-Joo Noh, Seung-Taek Myung, Hun-Gi Jung, Hitoshi Yashiro, Khalil Amine and Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200699

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      Tomograms of concentration gradient particles reveal that Li[Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1]O2 shows a high concentration of Ni (80%) throughout the spherical particle and the Co content at the center (10%) is gradually reduced to the outer surface (2%). Mn replaces the reduced Co content, forming a solid solution in the particle.

    3. Role of Oxygen Functional Groups in Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Freestanding Electrodes for High Performance Lithium Batteries (pages 1037–1045)

      Hye Ryung Byon, Betar M. Gallant, Seung Woo Lee and Yang Shao-Horn

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200697

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      Free-standing electrodes of hierarchically structured oxygen-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide are shown to deliver high volumetric energies up to 450 Wh L−1 at 5 kW L−1 in lithium cells, which are attributable to high mass densities (>1 g cm−3) and controllable utilization of surface oxygen species for Li+ Faradaic reactions.

  9. Frontispiece

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      Cathode Materials: Combining In Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Absorption Techniques with Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study the Origin of Thermal Instability in Overcharged Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1046)

      Kyung-Wan Nam, Seong-Min Bak, Enyuan Hu, Xiqian Yu, Youngning Zhou, Xiaojian Wang, Lijun Wu, Yimei Zhu, Kyung-Yoon Chung and Xiao-Qing Yang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370042

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      The structural origin of thermal instability of cathode materials, a critical safety issue for lithium-ion batteries, is studied systematically using a combination of various in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques and transmission electron microscopy. As Lijun Wu, Xiao-Qing Yang, and co-workers report on page 1047, an in-depth understanding of the thermal-decomposition behavior of overcharged cathode materials is obtained through this investigation.

  10. Full Papers

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    1. Combining In Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Absorption Techniques with Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study the Origin of Thermal Instability in Overcharged Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1047–1063)

      Kyung-Wan Nam, Seong-Min Bak, Enyuan Hu, Xiqian Yu, Youngning Zhou, Xiaojian Wang, Lijun Wu, Yimei Zhu, Kyung-Yoon Chung and Xiao-Qing Yang

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200693

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      The structural origin of the thermal instability of cathode materials, which is a critical safety issue for lithium-ion batteries, is studied systematically using a combination of various in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques and transmission electron microscopy. The in-depth understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of overcharged cathode materials provides valuable guidance for developing new cathode materials with improved safety characteristics.

    2. Phosphorous Pentasulfide as a Novel Additive for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries (pages 1064–1069)

      Zhan Lin, Zengcai Liu, Wujun Fu, Nancy J. Dudney and Chengdu Liang

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200696

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      Phosphorous pentasulfide reacts with lithium metal to form a protective coating that conducts lithium ions and improves the coulombic efficiency of Li-S batteries. The surface coating blocks the polysulfide shuttle, which is a key challenge to the longevity of Li-S batteries. By forming a complex with Li2Sx, P2S5 facilitates the redox reactions in Li-S batteries and leads to great retention of capacity.

    3. Nanoarchitecture Multi-Structural Cathode Materials for High Capacity Lithium Batteries (pages 1070–1075)

      Dapeng Wang, Ilias Belharouak, Guangwen Zhou and Khalil Amine

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200536

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      Nanoarchitectured hydroxide precursors with two levels of particle agglomerations are synthesized with a continuously stirred tank reactor. Li- and Mn-rich cathodes with a layer-layer-spinel composite structure inherit the morphology of these precursors and exhibit excellent electrochemical performance.

    4. An Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Battery (pages 1076–1080)

      Junghoon Kim, Dong-Ju Lee, Hun-Gi Jung, Yang-Kook Sun, Jusef Hassoun and Bruno Scrosati

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200689

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      A porous hard carbon spherules-sulfur (HCS-S) composite cathode shows remarkable electrochemical behavior in a lithium cell using a solution of lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) as the electrolyte. The new composite, characterized by high capacity, long cycle life, and remarkable sulfur content, is proposed as a new cathode material for high energy-lithium batteries.

    5. Structure and Electrochemical Performance of Carbide-Derived Carbon Nanopowders (pages 1081–1089)

      Carlos R. Pérez, Sun-Hwa Yeon, Julie Ségalini, Volker Presser, Pierre-Louis Taberna, Patrice Simon and Yury Gogotsi

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200695

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      Microporous carbon nanoparticles synthesized at 200–1200 °C by extraction of titanium from nanometer-sized titanium carbide (nanoTiC-CDC) show excellent electrochemical performance as supercapacitor electrode materials due to their easily accessible pores and a large specific surface area. Low temperature synthesis produces highly disordered carbons and leads to the presence of CN sp1 bonds.

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