Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 1

January 8, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 1

Pages 1–170

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      Hybrid Nanocomposites: Unidirectional High-Power Generation via Stress-Induced Dipole Alignment from ZnSnO3 Nanocubes/Polymer Hybrid Piezoelectric Nanogenerator (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2014) (page 1)

      Keun Young Lee, Dohwan Kim, Ju-Hyuck Lee, Tae Yun Kim, Manoj Kumar Gupta and Sang-Woo Kim

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470001

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      On page 37, S.-W. Kim and co-workers report unidirectional high-power generation from piezoelectric nanogenerators via stress-induced dipole alignment from single-crystalline piezoelectric perovskite ZnSnO3 nanocube/polydimethylsiloxane hybrids. This is achieved without applying electrical poling. A recordable large output voltage of about 20 V and an output current density of about 1 μA cm−2 from the device are successfully obtained while rolling under a vehicle tire.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Organic Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Function and Exciton/Charge Transfer Dynamics in a Highly Efficient Semiconducting Copolymer (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2014) (page 2)

      Jodi M. Szarko, Brian S. Rolczynski, Sylvia J. Lou, Tao Xu, Joseph Strzalka, Tobin J. Marks, Luping Yu and Lin X. Chen

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470002

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Exciton dissociation pathways within a polymer bulk heterojunction film in a solar cell device is investigated by L. Yu, L. X. Chen, and co-workers on page 10. The blue fullerene derivative PCBM acts as an electron acceptor and the yellow ribbons represent the investigated low-bandgap polymer PTB7. The polymer forms both ordered pi-stacked domains and disordered domains within the film. This image was created by Nanjia Zhou from Northwestern University.

  3. Back Cover

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      Flexible Batteries: Thin, Deformable, and Safety-Reinforced Plastic Crystal Polymer Electrolytes for High-Performance Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2014) (page 172)

      Keun-Ho Choi, Sung-Ju Cho, Se-Hee Kim, Yo Han Kwon, Je Young Kim and Sang-Young Lee

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470007

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      Thin, deformable, and safety-reinforced plastic crystal polymer electrolytes for use in high-performance flexible lithium-ion batteries with aesthetic versatility and robust safety features is reported on page 44 by S.-Y. Lee and co-workers. The combination of a plastic crystal polymer electrolyte matrix with a compliant nonwoven skeleton enables the fabrication of the innovative polymer electrolyte with optimized attributes. The cell assembled with the polymer electrolyte exhibits stable electrochemical performance under severely deformed states (even a wrinkled state), without suffering from internal short-circuit failures.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2014)

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470006

  5. Contents

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  6. Editorials

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      Growing the Family (page 9)

      Joern Ritterbusch

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303979

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    1. Photovoltaic Function and Exciton/Charge Transfer Dynamics in a Highly Efficient Semiconducting Copolymer (pages 10–26)

      Jodi M. Szarko, Brian S. Rolczynski, Sylvia J. Lou, Tao Xu, Joseph Strzalka, Tobin J. Marks, Luping Yu and Lin X. Chen

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301820

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      The excitonic dissociation pathways in the high-performance, low bandgap “in-chain donor-acceptor” polymer PTB7 are investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence spectroscopy. The effects of the amplitude and kinetics of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer state spectra, along with a detailed morphology analysis, are investigated and compared to those of conventional semiconducting homopolymers.

  8. Frontispiece

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      Organic Photovoltaics: Benzobisthiazole as Weak Donor for Improved Photovoltaic Performance: Microwave Conductivity Technique Assisted Molecular Engineering (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2014) (page 27)

      Masashi Tsuji, Akinori Saeki, Yoshiko Koizumi, Naoto Matsuyama, Chakkooth Vijayakumar and Shu Seki

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470004

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      Towards a highly efficient organic photovoltaic, new donoracceptor-type copolymers are proposed by S. Seki and co-workers. The copolymers comprise benzobisthiazole as a weak donor rather than an acceptor. The molecular design and device tuning of BBTz-based copolymers coupled with thienopyrroledione and benzothiadiazole are reported on page 28, by means of a device-less evaluation of laser and Xe-flash time-resolved microwave conductivity.

  9. Full Papers

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    1. Benzobisthiazole as Weak Donor for Improved Photovoltaic Performance: Microwave Conductivity Technique Assisted Molecular Engineering (pages 28–36)

      Masashi Tsuji, Akinori Saeki, Yoshiko Koizumi, Naoto Matsuyama, Chakkooth Vijayakumar and Shu Seki

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301371

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      Benzobisthiazole (BBTz), commonly an acceptor unit in low-bandgap polymers of organic photovoltaics, is used as weak donor and polymerized with benzothiadiazole (BT). The BBTz-BT copolymers exhibit deep HOMO (–5.7 eV) and 3.8% power conversion efficiency in an inverted cell. Xe-flash time-resolved microwave conductivity is shown to be a versatile tool for decision-making on the molecular design strategy.

    2. Unidirectional High-Power Generation via Stress-Induced Dipole Alignment from ZnSnO3 Nanocubes/Polymer Hybrid Piezoelectric Nanogenerator (pages 37–43)

      Keun Young Lee, Dohwan Kim, Ju-Hyuck Lee, Tae Yun Kim, Manoj Kumar Gupta and Sang-Woo Kim

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301379

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The unidirectional high-power generation via stress-induced dipole alignment from single-crystalline piezoelectric perovskite ZnSnO3 nanocubes/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid piezoelectric nanogenerator without applying electrical poling is demonstrated. A recordable large output voltage of about 20 V and an output current density value of about 1 μA cm−2 from a single nanogenerator cell are successfully obtained under rolling of a vehicle tire.

    3. Thin, Deformable, and Safety-Reinforced Plastic Crystal Polymer Electrolytes for High-Performance Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 44–52)

      Keun-Ho Choi, Sung-Ju Cho, Se-Hee Kim, Yo Han Kwon, Je Young Kim and Sang-Young Lee

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301345

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new class of thin, deformable, and safety-reinforced plastic crystal polymer electrolytes is reported as an innovative solid electrolyte for use in high-performance flexible lithium-ion batteries with aesthetic versatility and robust safety features. The combination of plastic crystal polymer electrolyte matrix with a compliant nonwoven skeleton enables the fabrication of the polymer electrolytes with optimized attributes.

    4. Fast, Air-Stable Infrared Photodetectors based on Spray-Deposited Aqueous HgTe Quantum Dots (pages 53–59)

      Mengyu Chen, Hui Yu, Stephen V. Kershaw, Haihua Xu, Shuchi Gupta, Frederik Hetsch, Andrey L. Rogach and Ni Zhao

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301006

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      A single layer, aqueous HgTe quantum dot (QD)-based photoconductor with fast temporal response is demonstrated. The device is fabricated using a simple spray-coating process and shows excellent stability in ambient conditions. The carrier mobility, the energy levels and carrier lifetimes associated with the trap states of the QDs are identified and correlated with the origin of the fast time response.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Fast, Air-Stable Infrared Photodetectors based on Spray-Deposited Aqueous HgTe Quantum Dots

      Vol. 24, Issue 8, 1037, Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014

    5. Omniphobic “RF Paper” Produced by Silanization of Paper with Fluoroalkyltrichlorosilanes (pages 60–70)

      Ana C. Glavan, Ramses V. Martinez, Anand Bala Subramaniam, Hyo Jae Yoon, Rui M. D. Nunes, Heiko Lange, Martin M. Thuo and George M. Whitesides

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300780

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      Omniphobic fluoroalkylated (“RF”) paper, both hydrophobic and oleophobic, is formed by silanization of the cellulose fibers of paper with fluoroalkyl chains. RF paper is highly permeable to gases and mechanically flexible, which allows it to be folded into functional shapes to form microtiter plates and liquid-filled gas sensors.

    6. Electric Field-Induced Oxidation of Ferromagnetic/Ferroelectric Interfaces (pages 71–76)

      Sebastien Couet, Manisha Bisht, Maarten Trekels, Mariela Menghini, Claire Petermann, Margriet J. Van Bael, Jean-Pierre Locquet, Rudolf Rüffer, André Vantomme and Kristiaan Temst

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301160

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      Understanding the chemical and magnetic properties of the interface in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric composites is key to achieving magneto-electric coupling. An irreversible oxidation can occur at the interface when applying an electric field. Basic material properties determine at which field magnitude and polarity the process may happen. These results are important for further development of artificial multiferroic systems

    7. Greatly Enhanced Thermal Contraction at Room Temperature by Carbon Nanotubes (pages 77–85)

      Xingyuan Shen, Christopher Viney, Changchun Wang and Jennifer Q. Lu

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301377

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      A composite has been formed between a polymer that can generate anomalous photothermal contraction and few-walled carbon nanotubes. The new composite exhibits giant and reversible contraction in response to NIR stimulation. This significant enhancement enables the creation of high-performance near-IR-based actuators and efficient photothermal or thermal energy conversion.

    8. Highly Robust Lithium Ion Battery Anodes from Lignin: An Abundant, Renewable, and Low-Cost Material (pages 86–94)

      Wyatt E. Tenhaeff, Orlando Rios, Karren More and Michael A. McGuire

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301420

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      A novel synthetic technique for lignin-based carbon fibers, where the fibers are fused to each other resulting in monolithic fibrous mats, is described. The unique fiber microstructures and mat morphologies provide favorable electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery anode applications. The fibers cycle reversibly versus Li metal in alkyl carbonate electrolytes.

    9. Large-scale Synthesis of Urchin-like Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Spheres by Targeted Etching and Their Photoelectrochemical Properties (pages 95–104)

      Jia Hong Pan, Xing Zhu Wang, Qizhao Huang, Chao Shen, Zhen Yu Koh, Qing Wang, Astrid Engel and Detlef W. Bahnemann

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300946

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      Urchin-like mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres (UMTHS) are successfully prepared on a gram scale by a designed targeted-etching process. The key feature of the strategy is the etching reconstruction of amorphous hydrous TiO2 solid spheres (ATHSS), creating a hollow interior and an urchin-like shell consisting of radially standing single-crystal anatase nanothorns with exposed {101} facets

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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      Nanowires: Decoupling Diameter and Pitch in Silicon Nanowire Arrays Made by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2014) (page 105)

      Junghoon Yeom, Daniel Ratchford, Christopher R. Field, Todd H. Brintlinger and Pehr E. Pehrsson

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470005

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      A combination of metal-assisted chemical etching and nanosphere lithography is used by P. E. Pehrsson and co-workers to make vertically aligned, crystalline silicon nanowire arrays over multiple cm2 areas. On page 106, these relatively smooth nanowires are 55 nm in diameter and are separated from each other by 490 nm. The smoothness and large pitch-to-diameter ratio are achieved through large-scale reduction (∼90%) of the nanospheres by carefully controlled inductively coupled plasma etching, a Ti adhesion layer to enhance the lift-off yield of the catalyst layer, and optimized catalyzed etching parameters.

  11. Full Papers

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    1. Decoupling Diameter and Pitch in Silicon Nanowire Arrays Made by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching (pages 106–116)

      Junghoon Yeom, Daniel Ratchford, Christopher R. Field, Todd H. Brintlinger and Pehr E. Pehrsson

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301094

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      Vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays with 55 nm diameter and 490 nm pitch are fabricated over large areas using a scalable and inexpensive bottom-up fabrication method (the combination of metal-assisted chemical etching and nanosphere lithography). These dimensions, typically fabricated with e-beam lithography, are achieved with large-scale reduction of nanospheres, a thin Au catalyst layer with Ti, and optimized etchant mixture.

    2. A Flexible Reduced Graphene Oxide Field-Effect Transistor for Ultrasensitive Strain Sensing (pages 117–124)

      Tran Quang Trung, Nguyen Thanh Tien, Doil Kim, Mi Jang, Ok Ja Yoon and Nae-Eung Lee

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301845

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      The novelty of the rGO FET strain sensor is the incorporation of an rGO channel as a sensing layer in which modulation of the inter-nanosheet resistance (Rinter) due to weak coupling between adjacent nanosheets induces a large change in the transconductance of the rGO FET. The rGO FET device is ultrasensitive to extremely low strain levels, as low as 0.02%.

    3. A Bottom-Up Approach to Build 3D Architectures from Nanosheets for Superior Lithium Storage (pages 125–130)

      Yongji Gong, Shubin Yang, Liang Zhan, Lulu Ma, Robert Vajtai and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300844

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      A bottom-up approach is developed to build 3D architectures by 2D nanosheets such as MoS2 and graphene oxide nanosheets as building blocks. The resulting 3D architectures possess favorable diffusion kinetics for both lithium and electrons, leading to excellent electrochemical performance. Such a simple and low-cost assembly protocol will provide a new pathway for the large-scale production of various functional 3D architectures for energy storage and conversions.

    4. Polyol Synthesis of Ultrathin Pd Nanowires via Attachment-Based Growth and Their Enhanced Activity towards Formic Acid Oxidation (pages 131–139)

      Yi Wang, Sang-Il Choi, Xin Zhao, Shuifen Xie, Hsin-Chieh Peng, Miaofang Chi, Cheng Zhi Huang and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302339

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      Growth via attachment: Ultrathin Pd nanowires are synthesized by controlling the reaction kinetics and thus the nucleation and growth of Pd nanoparticles, as well as their coalescence into chain-like nanostructures. The Pd nanowires show a catalytic activity 2.5 times higher than the conventional Pd/C catalyst towards formic acid oxidation.

    5. The Role of Fullerene Mixing Behavior in the Performance of Organic Photovoltaics: PCBM in Low-Bandgap Polymers (pages 140–150)

      Huipeng Chen, Jeff Peet, Sheng Hu, Jason Azoulay, Guillermo Bazan and Mark Dadmun

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300862

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      Fullerene diffuses into low-bandgap polymers with thermal annealing. Polymer/fullerene mixing is found to be crucial for optimal device performance.

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      Morphological Control for High Performance, Solution-Processed Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells (pages 151–157)

      Giles E. Eperon, Victor M. Burlakov, Pablo Docampo, Alain Goriely and Henry J. Snaith

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302090

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      The critical role of perovskite morphology in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells is probed and understood. Dewetting of perovskite films is minimized, to achieve uniform 100% coverage perovskite layers. Solution cast planar heterojunction solar cells with efficiencies of up to 11.4% are fabricated, a new record for such cells with no mesoporous layer.

    7. Effects of Fullerene Bisadduct Regioisomers on Photovoltaic Performance (pages 158–163)

      Xiangyue Meng, Guangyao Zhao, Qi Xu, Zhan'ao Tan, Zhuxia Zhang, Li Jiang, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang and Yongfang Li

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301411

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      The trans-2, trans-3, trans-4, and e isomers of dihydronaphthyl-based [60]fullerene bisadduct (NCBA) are isolated and used as acceptors for P3HT-based polymer solar cells (PSCs), and the corresponding PSCs fabricated by the four isomers show power conversion efficiencies of 5.8, 6.3, 5.6, and 5.5%, respectively, which are higher than that based on an NCBA mixture (5.3%), suggesting the necessity to use the individual fullerene bisadduct isomer for high-performance PSCs.

    8. Self-Organization and/or Nanocrystallinity of Co Nanocrystals Effects on the Oxidation Process Using High-Energy Electron Beam (pages 164–170)

      Ana Cazacu, Claudio Larosa, Patricia Beaunier, Guillaume Laurent, Paolo Nanni, Liliana Mitoseriu and Isabelle Lisiecki

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301465

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      Both the nanocrystallinity of Co nanoparticles (NPs) and their 2D hexagonal organization are for the first time shown to have a significant impact on the oxidation process rate, enabling various nanostructures, such as core-shell NPs, to be obtained. The Co core is either polycrystalline or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) single-crystalline, whereas the oxide shell is composed either of monoxide CoO or of a Co3O4 spinel.

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