Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 11

March 19, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 11

Pages 1493–1643

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      Thin Films: Polymer-Modified Mesoporous Silica Thin Films for Redox-Mediated Selective Membrane Gating (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1493)

      Johannes Elbert, Fabio Krohm, Christian Rüttiger, Sandra Kienle, Haiko Didzoleit, Bizan N. Balzer, Thorsten Hugel, Bernd Stühn, Markus Gallei and Annette Brunsen

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470068

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      The control of ionic transport through nanometersized pores is described by M. Gallei, A. Brunsen, and co-workers. On page 1591, the charge of mesoporous silica membranes is controlled by the oxidation or reduction of redox-responsive ferrocene-containing polymers. Depending on the surface charge, mainly determined by the polymer oxidation state, positively or negatively charged test-molecules are able to diffuse into the pores or are excluded. Cover-Artwork by Criss Hohmann, Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM).

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Ferroelectrics: BaMgF4: An Ultra-Transparent Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal with Strong χ(3) Response in the UV Spectral Region (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1494)

      Luis Mateos, Mariola O. Ramírez, Irene Carrasco, Pablo Molina, Juan F. Galisteo-López, Encarnación G. Víllora, Carmen de las Heras, Kiyoshi Shimamura, Cefe Lopez and Luisa E. Bausá

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470069

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      The first example of a two-dimensional, nonlinear photonic crystal fabricated on an ultra-transparent ferroelectric fluoride crystal is demonstrated by M. O. Ramirez and co-workers via direct electron beam writing. On page 1509, up to three different Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation processes are distributed in a conical geometry and a highly efficient Χ(3)- UV-third harmonic generation is also demonstrated.

  3. Back Cover

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      Defects: Understanding Bulk Defects in Topological Insulators from Nuclear-Spin Interactions (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1648)

      Dimitrios Koumoulis, Belinda Leung, Thomas C. Chasapis, Robert Taylor, Daniel King Jr., Mercouri G. Kanatzidis and Louis-S. Bouchard

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470073

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      Beneath the surface of a topological insulator is the bulk region (represented by its band structure), whose conductance should be kept minimal. New reproducible tools are needed which do not interfere with the surface states. Such non-invasive measurements of the bulk electronic properties can be provided by NMR spectroscopy, as shown by L.-S. Bouchard and co-workers on page 1519, which probes the resonant coupling of nuclear spins to the electrons near the Fermi level. Cover credit goes to Charlotte Gomez.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2014)

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470072

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2014) (pages 1495–1499)

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470070

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    1. Thin Films: Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Alternating Current-Driven Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Devices Employing High-k Relaxor Ferroelectric Polymer Dielectric (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1500)

      Yonghua Chen, Yingdong Xia, Hengda Sun, Gregory M. Smith, Dezhi Yang, Dongge Ma and David L. Carroll

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470071

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      Organic electroluminescent devices driven by time-dependent voltages or alternating current offer an alternative to standard OLED technologies. However, very little is known about how this might translate into overall performance of such devices. D. Ma, D. L. Carroll, and co-workers demonstrate a solutionprocessed route to create highly efficient AC field-induced polymer EL devices, employing a solution-processable high-k dielectric. The high luminance and efficiency, as well as the solution processability, pave the way to industrial roll-to-roll manufacturing of solid-state lighting and displays.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Alternating Current-Driven Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Devices Employing High-k Relaxor Ferroelectric Polymer Dielectric (pages 1501–1508)

      Yonghua Chen, Yingdong Xia, Hengda Sun, Gregory M. Smith, Dezhi Yang, Dongge Ma and David L. Carroll

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302587

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      A solution-processed route to create highly efficient alternating current-driven, field-induced polymer EL (FIPEL) devices is demonstrated. Such device gives a maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency of 13 800 cd m−2, 76.4 cd A−1, and 17.1 lm W−1. This is the largest improvement for FIPEL devices reported so far.

    2. BaMgF4: An Ultra-Transparent Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal with Strong χ(3) Response in the UV Spectral Region (pages 1509–1518)

      Luis Mateos, Mariola O. Ramírez, Irene Carrasco, Pablo Molina, Juan F. Galisteo-López, Encarnación G. Víllora, Carmen de las Heras, Kiyoshi Shimamura, Cefe Lopez and Luisa E. Bausá

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302588

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      The ability of ultra-transparent barium magnesium fluoride ferroelectric crystal to operate as a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal is demonstrated, from which different types of conical Cerenkov-second harmonic generation processes and highly efficient χ(3) UV-third harmonic generation can be obtained.

    3. Understanding Bulk Defects in Topological Insulators from Nuclear-Spin Interactions (pages 1519–1528)

      Dimitrios Koumoulis, Belinda Leung, Thomas C. Chasapis, Robert Taylor, Daniel King Jr., Mercouri G. Kanatzidis and Louis-S. Bouchard

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302673

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      The role of bulk defects in topological insulators is investigated from the NMR standpoint. The NMR technique is validated against angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport measurements for the most commonly used binary and ternary topological insulators. Defect content is correlated with the NMR Knight shift and spin-lattice relaxation. NMR is a local probe which reports non-invasively on carrier concentration and dynamics.

    4. The Effect of Polymer Chain Alignment and Relaxation on Force-Induced Chemical Reactions in an Elastomer (pages 1529–1537)

      Brett A. Beiermann, Sharlotte L. B. Kramer, Preston A. May, Jeffrey S. Moore, Scott R. White and Nancy R. Sottos

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302341

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      Simultaneous measurements of mechanical properties, birefringence and fluorescence images characterize the relationship between stress, polymer chain alignment, and activation of a force-sensitive chemical species centrally bonded into a polymer backbone.

    5. Injectable Hydrogels from Triblock Copolymers of Vitamin E-Functionalized Polycarbonate and Poly(ethylene glycol) for Subcutaneous Delivery of Antibodies for Cancer Therapy (pages 1538–1550)

      Ashlynn L. Z. Lee, Victor W. L. Ng, Shujun Gao, James L. Hedrick and Yi Yan Yang

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301307

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      ‘ABA’-type triblock copolymers of vitamin E-functionalized polycarbonate and poly(ethylene glycol) are synthesized and employed to form injectable hydrogels for local and sustained delivery of Herceptin. Biodistribution and antitumor efficacy studies suggest that this hydrogel has great potential for use in subcutaneous and sustained delivery of antibodies to increase therapeutic efficacy and/or improve patient compliance.

    6. Transparent Ultrathin Oxygen-Doped Silver Electrodes for Flexible Organic Solar Cells (pages 1551–1561)

      Wei Wang, Myungkwan Song, Tae-Sung Bae, Yeon Hyun Park, Yong-Cheol Kang, Sang-Geul Lee, Sei-Yong Kim, Dong Ho Kim, Sunghun Lee, Guanghui Min, Gun-Hwan Lee, Jae-Wook Kang and Jungheum Yun

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301359

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      An ultrathin-film-type oxygen-doped silver conducting electrode, which is significantly more transparent than, but as conductive as, silver, provides a power conversion efficiency of 6.34% from a highly flexible inverted organic solar cell.

    7. Scalable Oxygen-Ion Transport Kinetics in Metal-Oxide Films: Impact of Thermally Induced Lattice Compaction in Acceptor Doped Ceria Films (pages 1562–1574)

      Jennifer L. M. Rupp, Emiliana Fabbri, Dario Marrocchelli, Jeong-Woo Han, Di Chen, Enrico Traversa, Harry L. Tuller and Bilge Yildiz

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302117

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      Electro-chemo-mechanic coupling is investigated for ionic conducting ceria-based materials. The impact of lattice strain on the near order characteristics and ionic conductivity is experimentally studied for bulk pellets and thin films. Density functional theory computation reveals an increase in migration energy and consequent drop in ionic conductivity, observed for lattice strains of up to 2% in doped ceria thin films.

    8. A Universal Method of Producing Transparent Electrodes Using Wide-Bandgap Materials (pages 1575–1581)

      Hee-Dong Kim, Ho-Myoung An, Kyoung Heon Kim, Su Jin Kim, Chi Sun Kim, Jaehee Cho, E. Fred Schubert and Tae Geun Kim

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301697

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      A universal method of producing transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) with high conductivity and high optical transmittance in the UV regimes is presented using electrical breakdown to form conducting filaments (CFs) providing a current path between the TCEs and the semiconductor, which leads to a direct ohmic contact to p-Al0.5Ga0.5N layer as well as high optical transmittance of over 95% at 250 nm.

    9. Tailored Hydrogel Membranes for Efficient Protein Crystallization (pages 1582–1590)

      Gianluca Di Profio, Mariella Polino, Fiore P. Nicoletta, Benny D. Belviso, Rocco Caliandro, Enrica Fontananova, Giovanni De Filpo, Efrem Curcio and Enrico Drioli

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302240

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      Composite membranes supporting a homogeneous hydrogel layer, with tailored chemical composition, nano-architecture (mesh size), and selected morphologies, are fabricated and tested for protein crystallization. As such, the general advantages of gel and membrane-assisted crystallization are combined to produce crystals displaying enhanced diffraction features at lower protein concentration with respect to conventionally grown crystals.

    10. Polymer-Modified Mesoporous Silica Thin Films for Redox-Mediated Selective Membrane Gating (pages 1591–1601)

      Johannes Elbert, Fabio Krohm, Christian Rüttiger, Sandra Kienle, Haiko Didzoleit, Bizan N. Balzer, Thorsten Hugel, Bernd Stühn, Markus Gallei and Annette Brunsen

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302304

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      Mesoporous silica thin films are combined with redox-responsive ferrocene-containing polymers. The influence of chemical oxidation on the ionic accessibility shows a redox-controlled membrane gating as function of polymer location and pH value. This is a first step towards a redox-controlled ionic transport through nanopores, and thus towards fast, reversible, and external control of charge-selective membrane gating.

    11. Free-Standing Carbon Nanofibrous Films Prepared by a Fast Microwave-Assisted Synthesis Process (pages 1602–1608)

      Almut M. Schwenke, Steffi Stumpf, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301749

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      A fast microwave-assisted synthesis for the fabrication of square centimeter large free-standing carbon nanofibrous (CNF) films is reported. The obtained CNF coatings are about 10 μm thin and exhibit a good stability and partial self-delamination from the substrate, which enables their detachment from the substrate without the need for further treatment. Morphologic investigations by scanning electron microscopy and a growth model are presented.

    12. Employing ∼100% Excitons in OLEDs by Utilizing a Fluorescent Molecule with Hybridized Local and Charge-Transfer Excited State (pages 1609–1614)

      Weijun Li, Yuyu Pan, Ran Xiao, Qiming Peng, Shitong Zhang, Dongge Ma, Feng Li, Fangzhong Shen, Yinghui Wang, Bing Yang and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301750

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      A hybridized local and charge-transfer state character—identified based on solvatochromic effects, lifetime measurements, and DFT calculations—endows twisting donor–acceptor triphenylamine-thiadiazol molecules (TPA-NZP) with a high singlet ratio of nearly 100% in OLEDs. Electroluminescent decay analysis and negative magnetic-field effects indicate that the reason for the high singlet ratio could be the reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process in the high-lying charge transfer (CT)X state

    13. The Role of Insulating Oxides in Blocking the Charge Carrier Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1615–1623)

      Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302352

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      It is shown that not all the insulating layers can block the electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells. The blocking properties are analyzed with four different insulating oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition, and the recombination properties are investigated in detail.

    14. Nucleoside Triphosphates as Promoters to Enhance Nanoceria Enzyme-like Activity and for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing (pages 1624–1630)

      Can Xu, Zhen Liu, Li Wu, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301649

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      Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) can improve the oxidase-like activity of nanoceria and the enhancement is correlated with the type of NTP. Accordingly, series effective and high-throughput colorimetric assays for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing are developed.

    15. Surface Modification of Silicone with Covalently Immobilized and Crosslinked Agarose for Potential Application in the Inhibition of Infection and Omental Wrapping (pages 1631–1643)

      Min Li, Koon-Gee Neoh, En-Tang Kang, Titus Lau and Edmund Chiong

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302242

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      The surface modification of silicone with a microscale crosslinked agarose (AG)–heparin (HEP) layer is described. This natural polymer coating reduces biofilm formation by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by more than two orders of magnitude. In addition, the coating is highly stable, and has excellent antifouling and hemocompatible properties, as well as low cytotoxicity.

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