Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 12

March 26, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 12

Pages 1649–1807

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      Graphene: Self-Aligned Single-Crystal Graphene Grains (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2014) (page 1649)

      Dechao Geng, Birong Luo, Jie Xu, Yunlong Guo, Bin Wu, Wenping Hu, Yunqi Liu and Gui Yu

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470074

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      Self-aligned graphene grains are precisely controlled on liquid Cu by G. Yu and co-workers, using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. Large-scale monolayer graphene arrays are modulated by varying the growth conditions such as the flow rate of the carbon source, growth temperature, and growth time. On page 1664, the as-grown graphene arrays show reasonable mobility and high current density, showing great potential for graphene-based electronics.

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      Hybrid Electronics: Highly Robust Indium-Free Transparent Conductive Electrodes Based on Composites of Silver Nanowires and Conductive Metal Oxides (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2014) (page 1650)

      Kirill Zilberberg, Felix Gasse, Richie Pagui, Andreas Polywka, Andreas Behrendt, Sara Trost, Ralf Heiderhoff, Patrick Görrn and Thomas Riedl

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470075

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      To overcome the limits of indium-based transparent conductive materials, transparent conductive layers based on a composite of silver nanowires embedded in a conductive metal-oxide are a promising alternative presented on page 1671 by T. Riedl and co-workers. The metal-oxide conductively joins the wires at their junctions and also ‘glues’ them to the substrate. A record-low sheet resistance down to 5.2 Ohm/sq. is achieved with a concomitant average transmission of 87% for a composite prepared at room-temperature.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2014)

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470079

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2014) (pages 1651–1655)

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470076

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      Flexible Electronics: Transparent Nanopaper-Based Flexible Organic Thin-Film Transistor Array (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2014) (page 1656)

      Yoshihide Fujisaki, Hirotaka Koga, Yoshiki Nakajima, Mitsuru Nakata, Hiroshi Tsuji, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Taiichiro Kurita, Masaya Nogi and Naoki Shimidzu

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470077

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      Transparent nanopaper made from native wood cellulose nanofibers has great potential as a flexible substrate for eco-friendly and lowcost electronic devices. Y. Fujisaki and co-workers demonstrate the fabrication of an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) array on a transparent nanopaper by a solution-based process. As shown in the center image, the thin nanopaper-based OTFT offers paper-like flexibility and a high mobility in addition to good operational and mechanical durability, opening new doors for future paper displays.

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    1. Transparent Nanopaper-Based Flexible Organic Thin-Film Transistor Array (pages 1657–1663)

      Yoshihide Fujisaki, Hirotaka Koga, Yoshiki Nakajima, Mitsuru Nakata, Hiroshi Tsuji, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Taiichiro Kurita, Masaya Nogi and Naoki Shimidzu

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303024

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      Optically transparent paper is an attractive candidate for the substrate of eco-friendly and low-cost flexible electron devices. Here, a high-mobility organic thin-film transistor (TFT) array is demonstrated on a 20-μm-thick transparent cellulose nanofibers paper. The fabricated short channel TFTs exhibit a high mobility of up to 1 cm2V-1s-1 and air stability. The nanopaper-based structure also has mechanical flexibility.

    2. Self-Aligned Single-Crystal Graphene Grains (pages 1664–1670)

      Dechao Geng, Birong Luo, Jie Xu, Yunlong Guo, Bin Wu, Wenping Hu, Yunqi Liu and Gui Yu

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302166

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      Self-aligned single-crystal graphene grains are controllably prepared on liquid Cu using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition by controlling methane flow rate. The growth mechanism of the graphene arrays is discussed. Further, bilayer graphene is also fabricated under optimized growth conditions. The self-aligned graphene grains with high-quality should exhibit wide applications in graphene-based electronics for further scale-up production.

    3. Highly Robust Indium-Free Transparent Conductive Electrodes Based on Composites of Silver Nanowires and Conductive Metal Oxides (pages 1671–1678)

      Kirill Zilberberg, Felix Gasse, Richie Pagui, Andreas Polywka, Andreas Behrendt, Sara Trost, Ralf Heiderhoff, Patrick Görrn and Thomas Riedl

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303108

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      Solution processed, In-free transparent conductive layers based on a composite of silver nanowires and a conductive metal-oxide are demonstrated. Room temperature processing affords electrodes with a low sheet resistance of 5.2 Ω sq-1 and an average transmission of 87%. These hybrid electrodes are successfully implemented in efficient all-solution-processed semitransparent organic solar cells. This approach will generally be applicable in devices which require transparent electrodes.

    4. Versatile Functionalization of the Micropatterned Hydrogel of Hyperbranched Poly(ether amine) Based on “Thiol-yne” Chemistry (pages 1679–1686)

      Yanling Xu, Hongjie Xu, Xuesong Jiang and Jie Yin

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302139

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      Versatile functionalization of the micropatterned hydrogel of hyperbranched poly(ether amine) (hPEA) is demonstrated through a series of thiol- or yne-based click chemistry. FTIR, UV–vis spectra, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) are used to trace these click reactions. Due to the selective adsorption to the hydrophilic dyes, the obtained patterned hydrogel of hPEA modified with fluorescence dye is further demonstrated in application for recognition of guest molecules.

    5. Competing Crystal Growth in Ge–Sb Phase-Change Films (pages 1687–1694)

      Gert Eising, Bart-Jan Niebuur, Andrew Pauza and Bart J. Kooi

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301242

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      Two competing crystal growth modes occur in thin films composed of Ge8Sb92, Ge9Sb91 and Ge10Sb90: an initial isotropic slow growth mode is followed by a fast dendritic-like growth mode producing crystals with an overall triangular shape. The present findings are relevant for phase-change materials used in memory applications employing the fast reversible amorphous–crystalline phase change

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      Supramolecular Materials: Investigating Local Structure in Layered Double Hydroxides with 17O NMR Spectroscopy (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2014) (page 1695)

      Li Zhao, Zhe Qi, Frédéric Blanc, Guiyun Yu, Meng Wang, Nianhua Xue, Xiaokang Ke, Xuefeng Guo, Weiping Ding, Clare P. Grey and Luming Peng

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470078

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      17O magic angle spinning NMR is used by L. Peng and co-workers to probe the cation ordering and interactions between intralayer cations and interlayer anions in layered double hydroxides via the “memory effect”. In particular, Mg3OH and Mg2AlOH can be distinguished, and their structures are shown here to the right and left, respectively, of the 3D NMR data.

  8. Full Papers

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    1. Investigating Local Structure in Layered Double Hydroxides with 17O NMR Spectroscopy (pages 1696–1702)

      Li Zhao, Zhe Qi, Frédéric Blanc, Guiyun Yu, Meng Wang, Nianhua Xue, Xiaokang Ke, Xuefeng Guo, Weiping Ding, Clare P. Grey and Luming Peng

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301157

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      Efficient and economical 17O enrichment of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for NMR investigations can be realized via the “memory effect”. The 17O resonances due to the different oxygen ions in the LDHs structure can be resolved at intermediate magic angle spinning (MAS) speeds and fields with better resolution than the results obtained from 1H ultrafast MAS NMR spectroscopy. The results show clear evidence for Al–O–Al avoidance.

    2. 4-Cyanoresorcinol-Based Bent-Core Mesogens with Azobenzene Wings: Emergence of Sterically Stabilized Polar Order in Liquid Crystalline Phases (pages 1703–1717)

      Mohammed Alaasar, Marko Prehm, Kathrin May, Alexey Eremin and Carsten Tschierske

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302295

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      Development of polar order in tilted smectic liquid crystalline phases (SmC) of bent-core mesogens is found to take place with increasing polar domain size in a series of distinct phases via a paraelectric and a new randomized polar SmC phase (SmCsPR) to a ferroelectric phase, which then becomes modulated and finally changes to an antiferroelectric phase.

    3. Metabolizable Bi2Se3 Nanoplates: Biodistribution, Toxicity, and Uses for Cancer Radiation Therapy and Imaging (pages 1718–1729)

      Xiao-Dong Zhang, Jie Chen, Yuho Min, Gyeong Bae Park, Xiu Shen, Sha-Sha Song, Yuan-Ming Sun, Hao Wang, Wei Long, Jianping Xie, Kai Gao, Lianfeng Zhang, Saijun Fan, Feiyue Fan and Unyong Jeong

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302312

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      The Bi2Se3 nanoplates for cancer radiation therapy are designed. 50 nm PVP-protected Bi2Se3 nanoplates induce long blood circulation. The Bi2Se3 nanoplates are metabolizable and show low in vivo toxicity. The tumor accumulation of the Bi2Se3 nanoplates exhibit strong enhancement of cancer radiotherapy.

    4. Facile Fabrication of Ordered Crystalline-Semiconductor Microstructures on Compliant Substrates (pages 1730–1737)

      Francesca Cavallo, Kevin T. Turner and Max G. Lagally

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303165

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      Versatile fabrication of large-area ordered arrays of buckled structures on compliant substrates. Buckling of nanomembranes on compliant substrates occurs by isotropic volume expansion of compliant substrates in solvents and their subsequent contraction after exposure to air. A combination of this guided self-assembly with top-down patterning of the nanomembranes yields ordered 2D and linear arrays of 3D microstructures.

    5. RGD-Conjugated Nanoscale Coordination Polymers for Targeted T1- and T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumors in Vivo (pages 1738–1747)

      Hong Yang, Changyuan Qin, Chao Yu, Yang Lu, Hongwei Zhang, Fengfeng Xue, Dongmei Wu, Zhiguo Zhou and Shiping Yang

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302433

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      Gadolinium-based nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) are obtained using a nanoprecipitation method. The arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-functionalized NCPs, which show good targeted properties,  have a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 5.1 mM-1 s-1 and transversal relaxivity (r2) of 21.7 mM-1 s-1, suggesting a possibility to use them as both T1 positive and T2 negative contrast agents.

    6. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte and Aptamer Based Potassium Assay via Single- and Two-Step Fluorescence Energy Transfer with a Tunable Dynamic Detection Range (pages 1748–1757)

      Bao Lam Nguyen, Ji-Eun Jeong, In Hwan Jung, Boram Kim, Van Sang Le, Inhong Kim, Kwangseuk Kyhm and Han Young Woo

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301515

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      A conformational change in the K+-specific aptamer to form a G-quadruplex produces a clear turn on and off signal in the presence or absence of K+ ions. Highly sensitive and selective K+ detection is observed via single- and two-step FRET processes with a tunable sensing range and limit of detection.

    7. Combinatorial Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of F:TiO2; the Relationship between Photocatalysis and Transparent Conducting Oxide Properties (pages 1758–1771)

      Andreas Kafizas, Nuruzzaman Noor, Penelope Carmichael, David O. Scanlon, Claire J. Carmalt and Ivan P. Parkin

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301333

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      Anatase TiO2 with a graded level of F-dopant is grown by combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (cAPCVD). The functional properties of 200 positions across the film are rapidly screened. A blue region is singled out for containing the lowest electrical resistivities of any previously reported TiO2-based system grown by APCVD.

    8. Gold-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoroses with Five Unique Functions for Cancer Cell Targeting, Imaging, and Therapy (pages 1772–1780)

      Chunmei Li, Tao Chen, Ismail Ocsoy, Guizhi Zhu, Emir Yasun, Mingxu You, Cuichen Wu, Jing Zheng, Erqun Song, Cheng Zhi Huang and Weihong Tan

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301659

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      Five functions in one probe: A gold-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4@Au) nanorose with five distinct functions, which integrate aptamer-based targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, photothermal and chemotherapy into one single probe is developed. This multifunctional nanoplatform is used for cancer cell targeting, dual molecular imaging, and dual therapy, with enhanced specific binding, improved cellular uptake, minimum nonspecific toxicity, and side effects.

    9. Bioprocessing Device Composed of Protein/DNA/Inorganic Material Hybrid (pages 1781–1789)

      Taek Lee, Ajay Kumar Yagati, Junhong Min and Jeong-Woo Choi

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302397

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      A device based on a recombinant azurin/DNA hybrid material, defined as bioprocessor platform, is developed. Its unique properties are verified by various commanding input materials for three individual functions. This demonstration of the bioprocessing functions based on single hybrid biomolecules is a foundation for the development of environment-dependent biomolecular-based computing systems.

    10. Hybrid Nanodielectrics for Low-Voltage Organic Electronics (pages 1790–1798)

      Alessandro Luzio, Francisco García Ferré, Fabio Di Fonzo and Mario Caironi

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302428

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      Nanoscale hybrid double-layer dielectrics with high dielectric strength and capacitances up to 0.25 μFcm−2 are demonstrated to be compatible with top-gate polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). The adopted strategy allows the optimization of semiconductor–dielectric interface in low-voltage n-type and p-type FETs operating at voltages as low as 1 V. Thanks to this technique, complementary-like inverters exhibiting ideal switching for supply voltages of 1∼2 V can be obtained.

    11. Steric Protected and Illumination-Activated Tumor Targeting Accessory for Endowing Drug-Delivery Systems with Tumor Selectivity (pages 1799–1807)

      Zhefan Yuan, Dan Zhao, Xiaoqing Yi, Renxi Zhuo and Feng Li

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301309

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      An ABA-typed polymeric accessory is synthesized to endow traditional micelle-based drug carriers with an illumination-activated tumor specific intracellular drug-delivery capacity. The targeting function of this accessory can be effectively suppressed due to the hiding of ligands. After photo-irradiation, the cleavage of o-nitrobenzyl groups in the functional accessory leads to the stretch of PEG chains, resulting in activated tumor-targeting functions.

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