Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 16

April 23, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 16

Pages 2257–2408

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      Hybrid Materials: Strongly-Coupled Freestanding Hybrid Films of Graphene and Layered Titanate Nanosheets: An Effective Way to Tailor the Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Graphene Film (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014) (page 2257)

      In Young Kim, Suhye Park, Hyunseok Kim, Sungsu Park, Rodney S. Ruoff and Seong-Ju Hwang

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470098

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      S. Park, S.-J. Hwang, and co-workers report the fabrication of strongly coupled hybrid films of reduced graphene oxide-layered titanate with an unexpected high sterilization efficiency for Escherichia coli. On page 2288, E. coli cells exposed to the hybrid film are irreversibly destroyed by the edges of the nanosheets. The enhanced adhesion of bacteria on the rough surface of the hybrid films additionally contributes to their excellent antibacterial activity.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Drug Delivery: Gel–Liposome-Mediated Co-Delivery of Anticancer Membrane-Associated Proteins and Small-Molecule Drugs for Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014) (page 2258)

      Tianyue Jiang, Ran Mo, Adriano Bellotti, Jianping Zhou and Zhen Gu

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470099

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      Sequential and site-specific co-delivery of two anticancer therapeutics in a programmed manner is demonstrated by J. Zhou, Z. Gu, and co-workers on page 2295. The delivery is triggered by the tumor microenvironment and cellular conditions. The gel-liposome based nanovehicle can transport and release an anticancer cytokine (TRAIL) and small-molecule drug (doxorubicin) to their distinct acting sites: the cellular membrane and nucleus, respectively.

  3. Back Cover

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      Nanomembranes: Exfoliation of Threading Dislocation-Free, Single-Crystalline, Ultrathin Gallium Nitride Nanomembranes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014) (page 2412)

      Rami T. ElAfandy, Mohammed A. Majid, Tien Khee Ng, Lan Zhao, Dongkyu Cha and Boon S. Ooi

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470104

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      Through UV-assisted electroless chemical etching, single crystalline gallium nitride nanomembranes are exfoliated by B. S. Ooi and co-workers on page 2305, with the threading-dislocation cores selectively detached. This false-color scanning electron microscope image shows the nanomembrane lying on top of porous gallium nitride. The enlarged region reveals the gallium nitride nanowires (green), formed from threading-dislocations cores, protruding through the gallium nitride nanomembrane.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014)

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470103

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014) (pages 2259–2264)

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470100

  6. Correction

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      Mechanical Properties of Conjugated Polymers and Polymer-Fullerene Composites as a Function of Molecular Structure (page 2264)

      Suchol Savagatrup, Aditya S. Makaram, Daniel J. Burke and Darren J. Lipomi

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400595

      This article corrects:
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      Enhanced Transport of Nanoparticles Across a Porous Nanotube Sponge (page 2265)

      Hongbian Li, Xuchun Gui, Luhui Zhang, Chunyan Ji, Yichi Zhang, Pengzhan Sun, Jinquan Wei, Kunlin Wang, Hongwei Zhu, Dehai Wu and Anyuan Cao

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400632

      This article corrects:

      Enhanced Transport of Nanoparticles Across a Porous Nanotube Sponge

      Vol. 21, Issue 18, 3439–3445, Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011

  7. Frontispiece

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      Rechargeable Batteries: Complex Hydrides for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014) (page 2266)

      Atsushi Unemoto, Motoaki Matsuo and Shin-ichi Orimo

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470101

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      A new family of solid-state electrolytes—complex hydrides—possesses fast ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. Recent progress on the development of fast Li-ionic conductors based on the complex hydrides is reported by S. Orimo and co-workers. Success in stable battery operations of the bulk-type all-solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries are demonstrated using LiBH4-based electrolytes.

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    1. Complex Hydrides for Electrochemical Energy Storage (pages 2267–2279)

      Atsushi Unemoto, Motoaki Matsuo and Shin-ichi Orimo

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303147

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      Complex hydrides have energy conversion-related functions including fast Li-ionic conduction, typically in high-temperature phase of LiBH4. Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium rechargeable battery using LiBH4-based solid electrolytes allows noticeable charge–discharge cycles. In addition to the fast Li- and Na-ionic conductivities in the class of materials, future prospects on the next generation battery developments based on the complex hydrides are also summarized.

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      Antifouling: Vapor-Based Multicomponent Coatings for Antifouling and Biofunctional Synergic Modifications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2014) (page 2280)

      Meng-Yu Tsai, Yung-Chih Chen, Ting-Ju Lin, Yin-Chu Hsu, Ching-Yu Lin, Ruei-Hung Yuan, Jiashing Yu, Ming-Sheng Teng, Michael Hirtz, Mark Hung-Chih Chen, Chih-Hao Chang and Hsien-Yeh Chen

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470102

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      C.-H. Chang, H.-Y. Chen, and co-workers use a direct synthesis to create a multicomponent coating containing two functionalities, achieved via CVD copolymerization on various substrates. The resulting multifunctional surface can simultaneously perform specific bioorthogonal reactions, including the azidealkyne click reaction and a thiol-maleimide coupling reaction. This advanced surface can avoid fouling, allowing the installed groups to perform specific biofunctions with the high efficacy and accuracy necessary for delivering cascading and spontaneous biological activities.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    1. Vapor-Based Multicomponent Coatings for Antifouling and Biofunctional Synergic Modifications (pages 2281–2287)

      Meng-Yu Tsai, Yung-Chih Chen, Ting-Ju Lin, Yin-Chu Hsu, Ching-Yu Lin, Ruei-Hung Yuan, Jiashing Yu, Ming-Sheng Teng, Michael Hirtz, Mark Hung-Chih Chen, Chih-Hao Chang and Hsien-Yeh Chen

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303050

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      A multicomponent coating containing a distinct electron-deficient alkyne and unsaturated maleimide anchoring sites is synthesized using a straightforward process involving chemical vapor deposition copolymerization. The coating is utilized to design a biofunctionally active surface that resists fouling. The antifouling properties suppress protein adsorption and cell adhesion; the biofunctional surface precisely controls manipulated cell attachments synergically.

    2. Strongly-Coupled Freestanding Hybrid Films of Graphene and Layered Titanate Nanosheets: An Effective Way to Tailor the Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Graphene Film (pages 2288–2294)

      In Young Kim, Suhye Park, Hyunseok Kim, Sungsu Park, Rodney S. Ruoff and Seong-Ju Hwang

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303040

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      The strongly coupled freestanding hybrid films of graphene and layered metal oxide exhibit tunable physicochemical properties such as mechanical strength, chemical stability, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity. These hybrid films of graphene-oxide-layered titanate show complete sterilization of E. coli in 15 min, underscoring the beneficial effect of the layered metal oxide nanosheets in improving the functionality of graphene film.

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      Gel–Liposome-Mediated Co-Delivery of Anticancer Membrane-Associated Proteins and Small-Molecule Drugs for Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy (pages 2295–2304)

      Tianyue Jiang, Ran Mo, Adriano Bellotti, Jianping Zhou and Zhen Gu

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303222

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      A core–shell based “nanodepot” consisting of a liposomal core and a crosslinked-gel shell (Gelipo) is developed for the sequential and site-specific delivery (SSSD) of dual anticancer therapeutics. The programmed Gelipo can release the protein and small-molecule drug successively and transport them to their distinct targets, the plasma membrane and the nucleus, for enhanced synergetic anticancer activity.

    4. Exfoliation of Threading Dislocation-Free, Single-Crystalline, Ultrathin Gallium Nitride Nanomembranes (pages 2305–2311)

      Rami T. ElAfandy, Mohammed A. Majid, Tien Khee Ng, Lan Zhao, Dongkyu Cha and Boon S. Ooi

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303001

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      Chemical exfoliation of gallium nitride nanomembranes that are completely threading dislocation-free, single-crystalline, ultrathin, and unstrained is demonstrated using UV-assisted electroless chemical etching. These novel nanomembranes, once transferred to other substrates, present a unique and technologically attractive path towards integrating high-efficiency gallium nitride optical components along with silicon electronics.

    5. Magnetic Targeting Enhanced Theranostic Strategy Based on Multimodal Imaging for Selective Ablation of Cancer (pages 2312–2321)

      Zhiwei Li, Shengnan Yin, Liang Cheng, Kai Yang, Yonggang Li and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303345

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      A multifunctional magnetic-plasmonic nano-agent for magnetic resonance/photoacoustic multimodal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer is developed. Such a magnetic targeting-enhanced cancer theranostic strategy could potentially enable highly effective tumor ablation therapy, which could be carefully planned before treatment, precisely controlled during treatment, and with accurate prognosis after treatment.

    6. Adhesion and Surface Interactions of a Self-Healing Polymer with Multiple Hydrogen-Bonding Groups (pages 2322–2333)

      Ali Faghihnejad, Kathleen E. Feldman, Jing Yu, Matthew V. Tirrell, Jacob N. Israelachvili, Craig J. Hawker, Edward J. Kramer and Hongbo Zeng

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303013

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      The surface properties and adhesion mechanism of a self-healing polymer containing a quadruple hydrogen bonding group called "2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone" (UPy) are investigated under different environmental conditions. The results provide new insights into the fundamental understanding of the adhesive mechanisms of multiple hydrogen-bonded polymers, and the development of novel self-healing and stimuli-responsive materials.

    7. Compositionally Modulated Magnetic Epitaxial Spinel/Perovskite Nanocomposite Thin Films (pages 2334–2342)

      Dong Hun Kim, Nicolas M. Aimon, Xueyin Sun and Caroline A. Ross

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302844

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      Nanocomposites consisting of magnetic spinel pillars (CoFe2O4 NiFe2O4 or MgFe2O4) in a ferroelectric perovskite matrix (BiFeO3) are made in which the pillars are deposited in layers, enabling an out-of-plane modulation in the pillar composition and tailoring of the magnetic properties.

    8. Photophysical Investigation of the Thermally Activated Delayed Emission from Films of m-MTDATA:PBD Exciplex (pages 2343–2351)

      David Graves, Vygintas Jankus, Fernando B. Dias and Andrew Monkman

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303389

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      Extra singlet production via thermally activated delayed fluorescence in the exciplex formed between m-MTDATA and PBD is investigated. The exciplex singlet-triplet splitting is estimated to be very small at ≈ 5 meV, leading to a multiple cycling between the resonant singlet and triplet manifolds of exciplex before eventually being emitted from a singlet state.

    9. Tethered Lipid Bilayer Gates: Toward Extended Retention of Hydrophilic Cargo in Porous Nanocarriers (pages 2352–2360)

      Jixi Zhang, Diti Desai and Jessica M. Rosenholm

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302995

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      Gating ensured by cushioning: Hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is used, for the first time, to covalently tether defect-free phospholipid bilayers (LB), providing an unprecedented high retention of hydrophilic guest molecules. A surface charge conversion behavior is observed, opening the possibility of controlling their intracellular trafficking.

    10. Transforming One-Dimensional Nanowalls to Long-Range Ordered Two-Dimensional Nanowaves: Exploiting Buckling Instability and Nanofibers Effect in Holographic Lithography (pages 2361–2366)

      Jie Li, Yigil Cho, In-Suk Choi and Shu Yang

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302826

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      Two-dimensional nanowaves with long-range order are transformed from one-dimensional nanowalls by exploiting constraint swelling-induced buckling and effect of nanofibers formed between the nanowalls during holographic lithography. The degree of lateral undulation can be controlled by tuning the pattern aspect ratio and exposure dosage. The film with nanowaves show weaker reflecting color and lower transmittance compared to the straight nanowalls.

    11. High-Efficient Deep-Blue Light-Emitting Diodes by Using High Quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots (pages 2367–2373)

      Huaibin Shen, Xianwei Bai, Aqiang Wang, Hongzhe Wang, Lei Qian, Yixing Yang, Alexandre Titov, Jake Hyvonen, Ying Zheng and Lin Song Li

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302964

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      Violet-blue ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with quantum yields near to 100% are successfully synthesized using a high temperature shell growth method. High bright and efficient deep-blue QD-LED show an maximum luminance up to 4100 cd m-2, and peak external quantum efficiency of 3.8% which can be comparable with state-of-the-art OLED technology.

    12. Seeing Hydrogen in Colors: Low-Cost and Highly Sensitive Eye Readable Hydrogen Detectors (pages 2374–2382)

      Peter Ngene, Tsveta Radeva, Martin Slaman, Ruud J. Westerwaal, Herman Schreuders and Bernard Dam

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303065

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      Reversible change in the optical properties of Y thin film in the presence of H2 is combined with interference effects to create a novel, low-cost, and highly sensitive H2 detector which indicates the presence of H2 merely by an eye-readable, reversible, and tunable color change. Its high selectivity in H2O and O2 makes it potentially suitable for biochemical/biomedical H2 sensing applications.

    13. Giant Magnetoresistance in a Molecular Thin Film as an Intrinsic Property (pages 2383–2388)

      Luca Pilia, Michele Serri, Michio M. Matsushita, Kunio Awaga, Sandrine Heutz and Neil Robertson

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303218

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      Devices based on paramagnetic [Ni(quinoline-8-thiolate)2] show giant negative magnetoresistance above 50% at 2 K in single crystals and also in evaporated multicrystalline thin films, which is unique for a molecular material. A weaker effect is still observed at 200 K. The GMR is interpreted through a double exchange mechanism with the shape of the curve determined by the magnetic anisotropy

    14. Silica–Gold Core–Shell Nanosphere for Ultrafast Dynamic Nanothermometer (pages 2389–2395)

      Hongtao Sun, Xiang Sun, Mingpeng Yu, Ashish Kumar Mishra, Liping Huang and Jie Lian

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303191

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      A nanothermometer based on a silica–gold core–shell design enables temperature sensing from 300 to 800 °C with a sub-second response. The mechanism is based on the thermally induced morphological self-reorganization and characteristic surface plasmon (SP) absorption of the metal shell. The morphological self reorganization and variation of the SP absorption are irreversible, behaving as characteristic “fingerprints” for temperature recording permanently and allowing the retrieval of thermal history ex-situ.

    15. Deconstructing the Effects of Matrix Elasticity and Geometry in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lineage Commitment (pages 2396–2403)

      Greg M. Harris, Maria E. Piroli and Ehsan Jabbarzadeh

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303400

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      Micropatterned hydrogels capable of parsing the effects of matrix elasticity, cell shape, and cell size are used to explore the relationship between physical factors in mesenchymal stem cell lineage commitment. Cells on 1000 μm2 circles, squares, and rectangles are primarily adipogenic lineage while cells cultured on 2500 and 5000 μm2 shapes heavily depended on shape and elasticity for lineage specification.

    16. Fabrication of Organic Thin-Film Transistors on Three-Dimensional Substrates Using Free-Standing Polymeric Masks Based on Soft Lithography (pages 2404–2408)

      Ju-Hyung Kim, Sang Ho Hong, Kwang-dong Seong and Soonmin Seo

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303478

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      A novel fabrication technique for integrated organic devices on complex-structured substrates using free-standing polymeric masks with flexibility and adhesive properties is presented. The free-standing polymeric masks are easily patterned and applicable for various film-deposition methods. Thus, the free-standing polymeric masks facilitate the fabrication of devices integrated on complex-structured substrates, and show promise as an easy process for large-area electronics.

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