Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 18

May 14, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 18

Pages 2565–2733

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      Nanogenerators: Large-Area and Flexible Lead-Free Nanocomposite Generator Using Alkaline Niobate Particles and Metal Nanorod Filler (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (page 2565)

      Chang Kyu Jeong, Kwi-Il Park, Jungho Ryu, Geon-Tae Hwang and Keon Jae Lee

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470112

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      Lead-free alkaline niobate particles generate electrical energy in nanocomposites with metal nanorods that can take on the roles of dispersing, reinforcing, and conducting agents for the enhancement of energy harvesting. On page 2620, K. J. Lee and co-workers demonstrate how to realize highly efficient and large-area piezoelectric nanogenerators without lead and carbon-related environmental problems.

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      Click Chemistry: Click Chemistry in Materials Science (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (page 2566)

      Weixian Xi, Timothy F. Scott, Christopher J. Kloxin and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470113

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      Click chemistry has been employed as one of the most powerful paradigms in materials science. On page 2572, C. N. Bowman and co-workers deliver the highlights of the click reactions and their applications in materials science. This cover image illustrates how click reactions in the flask carry a flow of applications in materials science, such as polymers modification, bioconjugation, block copolymers, responsive materials, surfaces functionalization.

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      Metal Oxides: Mesoporous NiCo2O4 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Carbon Textiles as Binder-Free Flexible Electrodes for Energy Storage (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (page 2736)

      Laifa Shen, Qian Che, Hongsen Li and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470119

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      Advanced electrodes composed of mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays on carbon textiles are efficiently fabricated by X. G. Zhang and co-workers. The electrode architectures presented on page 2630 promise fast electron transport by direct connection to the growth substrate and facileion diffusion paths provided by both the abundant mesoporous structure in nanowires and the large open spaces between neighboring nanowires, which ensures that every nanowire participates in the ultrafast electrochemical reaction.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014)

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470118

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (pages 2567–2571)

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470114

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    1. Click Chemistry in Materials Science (pages 2572–2590)

      Weixian Xi, Timothy F. Scott, Christopher J. Kloxin and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302847

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      Click chemistry has become one of the most powerful paradigms in materials science, synthesis and modification. This feature article delivers highlights of the basic reactions, approaches, and applications of click chemistry in materials science as well as briefly looking to the future, enabling developments in this field.

    2. Energy Harvesting for Nanostructured Self-Powered Photodetectors (pages 2591–2610)

      Lin Peng, Linfeng Hu and Xiaosheng Fang

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303367

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      As a new field in self-powered nanotechnology-related research, self-powered photodetectors have been developed which exhibit a much faster photoresponse and higher photosensitivity than the conventional photoconductor-based photodetectors. Energy-harvesting techniques are discussed herein and their prospects for application in self-powered photodetectors are summarized. Moreover, potential future directions of this research area are highlighted.

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      Porous Materials: Controlling the Optical, Electrical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Inverse Opal by Nitrogen Doping (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (page 2611)

      Aarón Morelos-Gómez, Pierre G. Mani-González, Ali E. Aliev, Emilio Muñoz-Sandoval, Alberto Herrera-Gómez, Anvar A. Zakhidov, Humberto Terrones, Morinobu Endo and Mauricio Terrones

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470115

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      Nitrogen-doped carbon inverse opals are synthesized by M. Terrones and co-workers using an impregnated ordered opal template with a sucrose solution containing an organic compound with nitrogen. The materials are then subjected to thermal treatments and the opal removed by HF. The resulting pores preserve the ordering of the silica nanoparticles in the opal. Interestingly, the optical, electrical, and chemical properties significantly vary as a function of the nitrogen content within the porous carbon structure, and the size of the silica spheres used in the opal template.

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    1. Controlling the Optical, Electrical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Inverse Opal by Nitrogen Doping (pages 2612–2619)

      Aarón Morelos-Gómez, Pierre G. Mani-González, Ali E. Aliev, Emilio Muñoz-Sandoval, Alberto Herrera-Gómez, Anvar A. Zakhidov, Humberto Terrones, Morinobu Endo and Mauricio Terrones

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303391

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      The optical, electrical, and chemical properties of carbon inverse opals are tailored by nitrogen doping. The amount of nitrogen precursor dictates the changes in the physical and chemical properties. The reflected colors of the carbon inverse opal can vary in the visible region from red to blue. In addition, the resistivity can be lowered from 0.30 to 0.02 Ω cm.

    2. Large-Area and Flexible Lead-Free Nanocomposite Generator Using Alkaline Niobate Particles and Metal Nanorod Filler (pages 2620–2629)

      Chang Kyu Jeong, Kwi-Il Park, Jungho Ryu, Geon-Tae Hwang and Keon Jae Lee

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303484

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      The lead-free and high-performance nanocomposite generator based on novel alkaline niobate particles and well-dispersible copper nanorods. A biocompatible as well as high-output nanocomposite generator is achieved by using the specific composition of alkaline niobate and the low aggregatability of copper nanorods. The flexible nanocomposite generator in this work shows remarkable stability and reliability for energy harvesting from mechanical deformations.

    3. Mesoporous NiCo2O4 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Carbon Textiles as Binder-Free Flexible Electrodes for Energy Storage (pages 2630–2637)

      Laifa Shen, Qian Che, Hongsen Li and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303138

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      Advanced electrode architectures consisting of carbon textiles conformally covered by mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays are efficiently fabricated and directly applied as self-supported electrodes for energy storage devices, such as Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors. Because of its many advantageous structural features, such an electrode ensures that NiCo2O4 participates in the ultrafast electrochemical reaction, enabling remarkable rate performance and excellent cycling stability.

    4. Hierarchically Ordered Nano-Heterostructured PZT Thin Films with Enhanced Ferroelectric Properties (pages 2638–2647)

      Anuja Datta, Devajyoti Mukherjee, Sarath Witanachchi and Pritish Mukherjee

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303290

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      Hierarchical PZT nano-heterostructures are grown on STO:Nb from PZT nano-seeds using a combined pulsed laser deposition and hydrothermal process. Cross-linking of the structures result in a dense thin-film enabling the measurement of the ferroelectric properties without secondary fill-layer. Well-saturated and symmetric hysteresis showing high degree of squareness and enhanced remanent polarization are obtained.

    5. Controlled Generation of Microspheres Incorporating Extracellular Matrix Fibrils for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (pages 2648–2657)

      Victoria L. Workman, Liku B. Tezera, Paul T. Elkington and Suwan N. Jayasinghe

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303891

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      Three-dimensional cell culture techniques are currently suboptimal. Parameters affecting bio-electrospraying to generate cell-containing microspheres incorporating extracellular matrix components are investigated. Cell viability is preserved and 3D bio-electrospray cell culture systems have great potential to permit study of cells in a physiologically relevant environment pertinent to a wide range of cell biology.

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      Spider Silk Coatings as a Bioshield to Reduce Periprosthetic Fibrous Capsule Formation (pages 2658–2666)

      Philip H. Zeplin, Nathalie C. Maksimovikj, Martin C. Jordan, Joachim Nickel, Gregor Lang, Axel H. Leimer, Lin Römer and Thomas Scheibel

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302813

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      Coating of medical grade silicone implants with recombinant spider silk protein significantly reduces post-operative inflammatory reactions, synthesis, and re-modeling of extracellular matrix, as well as periprosthetic capsule formation. Spider silk coatings of silicone implants therefore improve the biocompatibility of the implant surface and lower the risk of secondary surgical interventions.

  9. Frontispiece

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      Nanoporous Sorbents: Nanostructured Hybrid Materials for the Selective Recovery and Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (page 2667)

      Justyna Florek, François Chalifour, François Bilodeau, Dominic Larivière and Freddy Kleitz

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470116

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      The importance of rare-earth elements in the global economy is booming as they are used in numerous advanced technologies. However, industrially, their extraction and purification remain tedious. Functional nanoporous hybrid materials, represented by D. Larivière, F. Kleitz, and co-workers as an asteroid preferentially cycling around a rare-earth planet, demonstrate enhanced affinity for the rare-earths with a high level of reusability, which increases their marketable potential. The image emphasizes the selectivity and reusability of these new extraction materials towards rare-earths, rather than gravitating around actinide and other metal contaminants.

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    1. Nanostructured Hybrid Materials for the Selective Recovery and Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements (pages 2668–2676)

      Justyna Florek, François Chalifour, François Bilodeau, Dominic Larivière and Freddy Kleitz

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303602

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      Nanomaterials for lanthanide separation: the importance of rare-earth elements in the global economy is booming as they are used in numerous advanced technologies. However, industrially, their extraction and purification remain tedious. Functional porous hybrid materials demonstrate enhanced selectivity towards heavier rare-earths compared to commercial products. Because of the grafting procedure used, these materials show high level of reusability, increasing their marketable potential.

    2. Solution-Processable Hole-Generation Layer and Electron-Transporting Layer: Towards High-Performance, Alternating-Current-Driven, Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Devices (pages 2677–2688)

      Yonghua Chen, Yingdong Xia, Gregory M. Smith, Hengda Sun, Dezhi Yang, Dongge Ma, Yuan Li, Wenxiao Huang and David L. Carroll

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303242

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      The effect of solution-processed hole-generation layers and electron-transporting layers is systematically investigated on the performance of AC-driven field-induced polymer electroluminescence (FIPEL) devices. A low turn-on voltage of 12 V, a maximum luminance of 20 500 cd m−2, and a maximum current and power efficiency of 110.7 cd A−1 and 29.3 lm W−1 are achieved. This study provides a pathway to high-performance FIPEL device engineering.

    3. Amplified Spontaneous Green Emission and Lasing Emission From Carbon Nanoparticles (pages 2689–2695)

      Songnan Qu, Xingyuan Liu, Xiaoyang Guo, Minghui Chu, Ligong Zhang and Dezhen Shen

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303352

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      Caution: Green Lasing emission is achieved from carbon nanoparticles (CNP2) ethanol aqueous solution in a linear Fabry-Perot cavity. The optical properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) can be modulated by the dopant-N atom and sp2 C-contents. The green emission from CNP2 is speculated to be attributed to intrinsic state emission.

    4. Liquid Phase Heteroepitaxial Growth of Moisture-Tolerant MOF-5 Isotype Thin Films and Assessment of the Sorption Properties by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (pages 2696–2705)

      Suttipong Wannapaiboon, Min Tu and Roland A. Fischer

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302854

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      The step-by-step heteroepitaxial growth method allows the fabrication of high-performance metal-organic framework (MOF)-on-MOF films. The MOF with sophisticated substituents that never achieves high crystallinity as a homostructured film can be epitaxially grown on another lattice-matched crystalline MOF. The hybrid MOF film shows the excellent size selectivity of alcohol adsorption by the pore opening window of the MOF shell component.

    5. Healable, Stable and Stiff Hydrogels: Combining Conflicting Properties Using Dynamic and Selective Three-Component Recognition with Reinforcing Cellulose Nanorods (pages 2706–2713)

      Jason R. McKee, Eric A. Appel, Jani Seitsonen, Eero Kontturi, Oren A. Scherman and Olli Ikkala

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303699

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      Nanocomposite hydrogels are prepared by combining ‘hard’ functionalised cellulose nanocrystals with ‘soft’ functionalised poly(vinyl alcohol) via dynamic and selective three-component host–guest chemistry. The ensuing supramolecular hydrogels synergistically combine rapid hydrogel recovery (within a few seconds) from the processable sol state to the relaxed gel state; suppressed passivation in self-healing, even after several months' storage, and; a high storage modulus.

    6. A Direct Approach to Organic/Inorganic Semiconductor Hybrid Particles via Functionalized Polyfluorene Ligands (pages 2714–2719)

      Tjaard de Roo, Johannes Haase, Janine Keller, Christopher Hinz, Marius Schmid, Denis V. Seletskiy, Helmut Cölfen, Alfred Leitenstorfer and Stefan Mecking

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304036

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      CdSe/polyfluorene hybrid particles are directly obtained by high-temperature synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in the presence of amine or phosphonic acid functionalized polyfluorenes. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies of these hybrid particles give a rare quantitative insight into the binding of the poly­fluorene ligands to the nanocrystal. Efficient energy transfer from polyfluorene to the nanocrystal is revealed by single particle photoluminescence studies.

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      Surface Chemistry: Bio-Inspired Multifunctional Metallic Foams Through the Fusion of Different Biological Solutions (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2014) (page 2720)

      Xu Jin, Bairu Shi, Lichen Zheng, Xiaohan Pei, Xiyao Zhang, Ziqi Sun, Yi Du, Jung Ho Kim, Xiaolin Wang, Shixue Dou, Kesong Liu and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470117

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      Nature is a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers to design advanced materials and develop new technology. Through the fusion of optimized biological solutions such as the lotus leaf's superhydrophobic self-cleaning, the water strider leg with durable and robust superhydrophobicity, and the lightweight bird bone with a hollow structure, K. Liu and co-workers fabricate multifunctional metallic foams which show hydrophobic self-cleaning, a striking loading capacity, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the foam can be used to construct an oil/water separation apparatus, exhibiting high separation efficiency.

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    1. Bio-Inspired Multifunctional Metallic Foams Through the Fusion of Different Biological Solutions (pages 2721–2726)

      Xu Jin, Bairu Shi, Lichen Zheng, Xiaohan Pei, Xiyao Zhang, Ziqi Sun, Yi Du, Jung Ho Kim, Xiaolin Wang, Shixue Dou, Kesong Liu and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304184

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      Inspired by the optimized biological solutions from the lotus leaf with superhydrophobic self-cleaning, the water strider leg with durable and robust superhydrophobicity, and the lightweight bird bone with hollow structures, multifunctional metallic foams with multiscale structures are fabricated, demonstrating low adhesive superhydrophobic self-cleaning, striking loading capacity, stable corrosion resistance, and oil/water separation.

    2. Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection in Circulating Tumor Cells Based on DNA Metallization and Sharp Solid-State Electrochemical Techniques (pages 2727–2733)

      Li Wu, Jiasi Wang, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303818

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      Telomerase detection in circulating tumor cells (CTCs): On the basis of enzyme-assisted background-noise suppression and DNA metallization-based signal amplification, the constructed biosensor shows ultrahigh sensitivity for telomerase detection. This work paves the way for a new PCR-free method for measuring telomerase activity in CTCs, and point-of-care diagnosis and individualized treatment of cancers via a noninvasive routine blood test.

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