Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 22

June 11, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 22

Pages 3289–3470

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      Carbon Nanotubes: Continuous Band-Filling Control and One-Dimensional Transport in Metallic and Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Tangled Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014) (page 3289)

      Hidekazu Shimotani, Satoshi Tsuda, Hongtao Yuan, Yohei Yomogida, Rieko Moriya, Taishi Takenobu, Kazuhiro Yanagi and Yoshihiro Iwasa

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470141

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      H. Shimotani and co-workers report the substantial changes in the conductance of a metallic SWNT thin film with an ionic-liquid gating. On page 3305, number of current-carrying subbands in metallic SWNTs as well as semiconducting SWNTs are electrochemically controlled and observed in situ with optical absorption spectrometer. The conductance of SWNT thin films shows stepwise increases when the number of current-carrying subbands increases.

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      Drug Delivery: Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Microcapsules for Adjustable Controlled-Release (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014) (page 3290)

      Jie Wei, Xiao-Jie Ju, Xiao-Yi Zou, Rui Xie, Wei Wang, Ying-Mei Liu and Liang-Yin Chu

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470142

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      Novel multi-stimuli-responsive microcapsules with adjustable controlled-release characteristics are reported by X.-J. Ju, L.-Y. Chu, and co-workers on page 3312. The microcapsules can achieve targeted delivery at specific sites by applying an external magnetic field, pH-responsive drug release at acidic environments and flexibly adjustable controlledrelease rate depending on temperature regulation, which provide a new mode for designing “intelligent” controlled-release systems and for realizing more rational drug administration.

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      Flexible Electronics: Inkjet Printed Negative Supercapacitors: Synthesis of Polyaniline-Based Inks, Doping Agent Effect, and Advanced Electronic Devices Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014) (page 3472)

      Alessandro Chiolerio, Sergio Bocchini and Samuele Porro

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470147

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      Flexible devices made of doped polyaniline (PANI) are directly deposited by inkjet printing on a plastic sheet (polyimide). The molecular arrangement of the functional material is also represented, showing its crystalline ordering. Inks are synthesized by A. Chiolerio and co-workers through a water-based process, avoiding the use of toxic/mutagenic substances normally employed in PANI production. On page 3375, These printed devices show the highest negative supercapacitance measured so far (−2.3 mF @ 30 Hz) corresponding to a specific mass capacity of −799 Fg−1.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014)

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470146

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014) (pages 3291–3297)

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470143

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      Flexible Electronics: Wearable, Human-Interactive, Health-Monitoring, Wireless Devices Fabricated by Macroscale Printing Techniques (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014) (page 3298)

      Wataru Honda, Shingo Harada, Takayuki Arie, Seiji Akita and Kuniharu Takei

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470144

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      K. Takei and colleagues show a future wearable health monitoring system (smart bandage) that can monitor real-time health conditions, provide a cure by delivering a drug depending on the health condition, and send the diagnostic results to a doctor wirelessly. The device presented on page 3299 can both save a lot of cost and time for patients and doctors and is a comfortable and private healthcare solution. This is a proof-of-concept for the future smart bandage.

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    1. Wearable, Human-Interactive, Health-Monitoring, Wireless Devices Fabricated by Macroscale Printing Techniques (pages 3299–3304)

      Wataru Honda, Shingo Harada, Takayuki Arie, Seiji Akita and Kuniharu Takei

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303874

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      Human-interactive smart bandage: Touch sensors, temperature sensors, and a drug-delivery pump with a wireless coil are integrated on a flexible substrate and conformally covered surrounding human arm as a wearable device. The device can monitor real-time temperature and touch detections of human and drug curing.

    2. Continuous Band-Filling Control and One-Dimensional Transport in Metallic and Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Tangled Films (pages 3305–3311)

      Hidekazu Shimotani, Satoshi Tsuda, Hongtao Yuan, Yohei Yomogida, Rieko Moriya, Taishi Takenobu, Kazuhiro Yanagi and Yoshihiro Iwasa

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303566

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      Electrochemical carrier control of pure metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films enable simultaneous measurements of the band filling by optical absorption spectroscopy and conductivity. The metallic SWNT film as well as the semiconducting SWNT film show substantial change in the conductivity by the subband filling.

    3. Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Microcapsules for Adjustable Controlled-Release (pages 3312–3323)

      Jie Wei, Xiao-Jie Ju, Xiao-Yi Zou, Rui Xie, Wei Wang, Ying-Mei Liu and Liang-Yin Chu

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303844

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      Multi-stimuli-responsive microcapsules with adjustable controlled-release chara­cteristics are successfully prepared by embedding magnetic nanoparticles and temperature-responsive sub-microspheres into pH-responsive chitosan microcapsule membranes. This kind of microcapsules can simultaneously achieve targeted delivery by applying an external magnetic field, self-regulated drug release according to pH difference at pathological sites, and adjustable controlled-release depending on temperature regulation.

    4. Strategies for Fast-Switching in All-Polymer Field Effect Transistors (pages 3324–3331)

      Satyaprasad P. Senanayak and K. S. Narayan

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303374

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      Systematic control and enhancement of the switching speed in polymer transistors has enormous implications in flexible electronics. Polymer logic circuits with switching frequency >1 MHz at printable channel length is demonstrated. General guidelines to obtain fast polymer circuits include: polymers with high mobility and isolated conjugated core, dielectrics with co-operative dipoles, high transverse field, and ordered interface for transport.

    5. Theoretical Investigation and Structural Optimization of Single-Electrode Triboelectric Nanogenerators (pages 3332–3340)

      Simiao Niu, Ying Liu, Sihong Wang, Long Lin, Yu Sheng Zhou, Youfan Hu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303799

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      A comprehensive theoretical model is developed for single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerators. The real time output characteristics are calculated by different numerical calculation methods. A three-capacitance equivalent circuit model is built to clarify the working principle of single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerators. Finally, the impact of electrode gap distance and area size on the performance of the devices are investigated and strategies for the structural optimization are provided.

    6. Colloidal Bi2S3 Nanocrystals: Quantum Size Effects and Midgap States (pages 3341–3350)

      Mauro Aresti, Michele Saba, Roberto Piras, Daniela Marongiu, Guido Mula, Francesco Quochi, Andrea Mura, Carla Cannas, Mauro Mureddu, Andrea Ardu, Guido Ennas, Vasco Calzia, Alessandro Mattoni, Anna Musinu and Giovanni Bongiovanni

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303879

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      Bandgap tunability and density of midgap states in Bi2S3colloidal nanocrystals are investigated. Energy shifts of tens of meV are observed in nanocrystals with 3 nm size. Similar bandgap tunability is envisaged for pnictide chalcogenides with the same ribbon-like structure [Pn4Ch6]n (Pn = Bi, Sb; Ch = S, Se). An intragap density of states in excess of 1020 cm−3 is found.

    7. Rapid Prototyping for Soft-Matter Electronics (pages 3351–3356)

      Tong Lu, Lauren Finkenauer, James Wissman and Carmel Majidi

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303732

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      Methods to rapidly produce elastically-soft electronics composed of liquid-phase gallium–indium alloy and conductive elastomer in minutes using a commercial CO2 laser are introduced. This work builds upon previous efforts in GaIn patterning and has the potential to further broaden its impact in the field of soft-matter electronics by introducing methodologies for inexpensive rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing.

    8. Exploiting Memristive BiFeO3 Bilayer Structures for Compact Sequential Logics (pages 3357–3365)

      Tiangui You, Yao Shuai, Wenbo Luo, Nan Du, Danilo Bürger, Ilona Skorupa, René Hübner, Stephan Henker, Christian Mayr, René Schüffny, Thomas Mikolajick, Oliver G. Schmidt and Heidemarie Schmidt

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303365

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      A BiFeO3:Ti/BiFeO3 (BFTO/BFO) bilayer structure with optimized BFTO thickness reveals nonvolatile symmetric bipolar resistive switching due to the migration of oxygen vacancies/ions in an electric field. For nonvolatile logic applications, all 16 Boolean logic functions can be configured into a single BFTO/BFO cell using terminal T1 and T2 for positive and negative writing (C.HV1, C.HV2) and reading biases (C.LV).

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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      Organic Electronics: Feel the Heat: Nonlinear Electrothermal Feedback in Organic LEDs (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2014) (page 3366)

      Axel Fischer, Thomas Koprucki, Klaus Gärtner, Max L. Tietze, Jacqueline Brückner, Björn Lüssem, Karl Leo, Annegret Glitzky and Reinhard Scholz

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470145

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      On page 3367 A. Fischer and co-workers investigate the brightness inhomogeneity of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) under Joule self-heating. The presence of S-shaped negative differential resistance is revealed unambiguously by 4-wire crossbar measurements. In specific voltage regimes, the voltage and current distribution in the OLED produces regions where a declining voltage propagates laterally through the device. As a consequence, brightness inhomogeneities are amplified, producing even regions where current and luminance diminish in an upwards sweep of the applied external voltage.

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    1. Feel the Heat: Nonlinear Electrothermal Feedback in Organic LEDs (pages 3367–3374)

      Axel Fischer, Thomas Koprucki, Klaus Gärtner, Max L. Tietze, Jacqueline Brückner, Björn Lüssem, Karl Leo, Annegret Glitzky and Reinhard Scholz

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303066

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      S-shaped negative differential resistance in organic LED is observed as a feature of their nonlinear electrothermal feedback. By 4-wire measurements and multi-physics simulations, the lateral propagation of NDR as well as “switched-back” regions through the OLED is described. The results are transferred to a large area OLED tile and compared with experimental results, explaining the extreme brightness inhomogeneities under self-heating.

    2. Inkjet Printed Negative Supercapacitors: Synthesis of Polyaniline-Based Inks, Doping Agent Effect, and Advanced Electronic Devices Applications (pages 3375–3383)

      Alessandro Chiolerio, Sergio Bocchini and Samuele Porro

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303371

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      Polyaniline is synthesized starting from aniline dimer and polyaniline doped with different organic acids is easily deposed by ink-jet printing. These materials present negative capacitance and supercapacitance properties.

    3. Three-Dimensional Branched Nanowire Heterostructures as Efficient Light-Extraction Layer in Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3384–3391)

      Byeong Uk Ye, Buem Joon Kim, Joonmo Park, Hu Young Jeong, Jae Yong Park, Jong Kyu Kim, Jin-Hoe Hur, Myung Hwa Kim, Jong-Lam Lee and Jeong Min Baik

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303914

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      A facile method to grow 3D branched nanowire heterostructures by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches is suggested. The ZnO nanowires with a small tapering angle (≈6°) are grown on GaN by hydrothermal method. The tapering enables the oblique angle flux incidence of MgO, producing the branch nanowires. The LEDs with the branch nanowires show a remarkable enhancement in the light emission by 21% due to the decrease in the wave-guiding modes and total internal reflection.

    4. The Bottom Up Approach is Not Always the Best Processing Method: Dense α-Al2O3/NiAl2O4 Composites (pages 3392–3398)

      Nathan J. Taylor, Andrew J. Pottebaum, Veli Uz and Richard M. Laine

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302845

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      Dense NiAl2O4/α-Al2O3 composites are synthesized from both highly atomically-mixed single phase metastable spinel nanopowders and from submicrometer mixed NiAl2O4 and Al2O3 nanopowders to study bottom-up synthesis from the nanoscale to bulk materials. Surprisingly, both composites sinter to similar densities with similar microstructural properties and grain sizes, suggesting that the bottom-up approach may not be the best choice for bulk synthesis.

    5. MoO2/Mo2C Heteronanotubes Function as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Electrode (pages 3399–3404)

      Hao-Jie Zhang, Kai-Xue Wang, Xue-Yan Wu, Yan-Mei Jiang, Yu-Bo Zhai, Cheng Wang, Xiao Wei and Jie-Sheng Chen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303856

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      Hierarchical porous MoO2/Mo2C heteronanotubes are obtained by using a mesoporous carbon CMK-3 as both the template and the reactant. Taking advantage of the incorporation of high electronic conductive Mo2C and the hierarchical porous structure, the cycling and rate performance of the heteronanotubes is markedly enhanced.

    6. Flexible and Wire-Shaped Micro-Supercapacitor Based on Ni(OH)2-Nanowire and Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Electrodes (pages 3405–3412)

      Xiaoli Dong, Ziyang Guo, Yanfang Song, Mengyan Hou, Jianqiang Wang, Yonggang Wang and Yongyao Xia

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304001

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      The high performance of a flexible, wire-shaped, and solid-state micro-supercapacitor, which is prepared by twisting a Ni(OH)2-nanowire fiber-electrode and an ordered mesoporous carbon fiber-electrode together with solid-state polymer electrolyte, is demonstrated.

    7. Solution-Processible 2,2′-Dimethyl-biphenyl Cored Carbazole Dendrimers as Universal Hosts for Efficient Blue, Green, and Red Phosphorescent OLEDs (pages 3413–3421)

      Xingdong Wang, Shumeng Wang, Zhihua Ma, Junqiao Ding, Lixiang Wang, Xiabin Jing and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302849

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      A high triplet energy and suitable HOMO/LUMO levels for effective charge injection are realized in dendrimer G3MP with a third-generation carbazole dendron, due to a small exchange energy of 0.33 eV. Therefore, G3MP can be utilized as a high-performance universal host for a wide color range of phosphors from deep blue to red.

    8. Morphological Origin of Charge Transport Anisotropy in Aligned Polythiophene Thin Films (pages 3422–3431)

      Brendan T. O'Connor, Obadiah G. Reid, Xinran Zhang, R. Joseph Kline, Lee J. Richter, David J. Gundlach, Dean M. DeLongchamp, Michael F. Toney, Nikos Kopidakis and Garry Rumbles

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303351

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      Macroscale charge transport anisotropy is compared to the local transport anisotropy in highly aligned P3HT films. The macroscale charge mobility anisotropy is substantially higher than the local anisotropy, which is attributed to preferentially aligned tie-chains. The local mobility anisotropy is found to be surprisingly low, suggesting that P3HT has relative low intrachain mobility due to local disorder associated with the flexible backbone.

    9. Tuning the Polarizability in Donor Polymers with a Thiophenesaccharin Unit for Organic Photovoltaic Applications (pages 3432–3437)

      Tao Xu, Luyao Lu, Tianyue Zheng, Jodi M. Szarko, Alexander Schneider, Lin X. Chen and Luping Yu

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303688

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      Low bandgap copolymers incorporating an artificial sweetener derivative (TID) are synthesized. They exhibit a diminished power-conversion efficiency (PCE) with a large local dipole moment change between ground and excited states Δμge, indicating that the linear correlation between Δμge and PCE does not extend further to a larger internal dipolar change region. The strongly electron-withdrawing sulfonyl group is detrimental to charge separation in copolymer TID.

    10. Flexible and Transparent Nanocomposite of Reduced Graphene Oxide and P(VDF-TrFE) Copolymer for High Thermal Responsivity in a Field-Effect Transistor (pages 3438–3445)

      Tran Quang Trung, Subramanian Ramasundaram, Seok Won Hong and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304224

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      A transparent and flexible temperature sensor based on a nanocomposite field-effect transistor (FET) with high thermal responsivity, stability, and reproducibility is produced. The novelty of the sensor is the incorporation of a nanocomposite channel as a sensing layer that is highly responsive to temperature and is optically transparent and mechanically flexible. The sensing layer of the nanocomposite is easily coated onto a large-area substrate for fabrication of transparent and flexible FET.

    11. Synthesis of Alternating Copolysiloxane with Terthiophene and Perylenediimide Derivative Pendants for Involatile WORM Memory Device (pages 3446–3455)

      Guanyin Wen, Zhongjie Ren, Dianming Sun, Tingjie Zhang, Lili Liu and Shouke Yan

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304004

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      Alternating copolysiloxane with both electron donor terthiophene and electron acceptor perylenediimide derivative pendants (PTSi-alt-PDISi) is synthesized successfully, showing high thermal and morphological stability. The fabricated memory device-based PTSi-alt-PDISi shows nonvolatile WORM memory characteristics with low turn-on threshold voltage and high ON/OFF current density ratio. This suggests that the new donor–acceptor polysiloxanes have potential applications in the field of memory devices.

    12. Tailoring Microstructure of Graphene-Based Membrane by Controlled Removal of Trapped Water Inspired by the Phase Diagram (pages 3456–3463)

      Wei Lv, Zhengjie Li, Guangmin Zhou, Jiao-Jing Shao, Debin Kong, Xiaoyu Zheng, Baohua Li, Feng Li, Feiyu Kang and Quan-Hong Yang

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304054

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      Inspired by the phase diagram of the water, the phase changes of water trapped in freshly formed graphene oxide membrane are utilized to generate strong forces to tune and fix its final microstructure, and a membrane with graded structure is finally obtained. Such a membrane shows high sheet utilization and reveals high adsorption and electrochemical performance after reduction.

    13. Systematic Doping Control of CVD Graphene Transistors with Functionalized Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 3464–3470)

      Nathan Cernetic, Sanfeng Wu, Joshua A. Davies, Benjamin W. Krueger, Daniel O. Hutchins, Xiaodong Xu, Hong Ma and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303952

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      A series of functionalized aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used to systemically control the doping of CVD graphene transistors. A direct correlation between the predicted SAM dipole determined via density functional theory and the charge neutrality point of graphene transistors is found when doping effects due to the metal electrode contacts are taken into account.

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