Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 23

June 18, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 23

Pages 3473–3650

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      Charge Transport: Dynamic Control Over Electronic Transport in 3D Bulk Nanographene via Interfacial Charging (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2014) (page 3473)

      Subho Dasgupta, Di Wang, Christian Kübel, Horst Hahn, Theodore F. Baumann and Jürgen Biener

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470148

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      Dynamic control is demonstrated by S. Dasgupta, J. Biener, and co-workers over electronic transport in high surface-area graphene-based bulk materials with a 3D open porous network structure. The structure, described on page 3494, consists of single- and double-layer graphene nanoplatelets. The large macroscopic conductance of the nanographene monoliths can be varied up to several hundred percent using electrolyte gating-induced charge-carrier accumulation or depletion, thereby paving the way towards carbon-based bulk transistors.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Stretchable Electronics: Direct Writing of Gallium-Indium Alloy for Stretchable Electronics (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2014) (page 3474)

      J. William Boley, Edward L. White, George T.-C. Chiu and Rebecca K. Kramer

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470149

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      R. K. Kramer and co-authors report a direct writing method for Ga-In alloys based on an extrusion process. Liquid Ga-In exposed to ambient conditions forms a Ga-oxide skin, which governs the wetting dynamics and printability of Ga-In alloys on silicone-based substrates. The direct writing method and corresponding design algorithm developed on page 3501 lead to free-standing liquid structures, which are applied to create stretchable and conformable electronic devices.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2014)

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470153

  4. Contents

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2014) (pages 3475–3480)

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470150

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      Transparent Electronics: Photo-Insensitive Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Integrated with a Plasmonic Filter for Transparent Electronics (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2014) (page 3481)

      Seongpil Chang, Yun Seon Do, Jong-Woo Kim, Bo Yeon Hwang, Jinnil Choi, Byung-Hyun Choi, Yun-Hi Lee, Kyung Cheol Choi and Byeong-Kwon Ju

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470151

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      Transparent electronic devices demonstrated by K. C. Choi, B.-K. Ju, and co-workers show as invisible to the eyes. In order to achieve stable device operatiom, the negative-bias illumination stressinduced instability must be improved. To achieving this, plasmonic filters engraved by laser interference lithography are integrated with amorphous oxide-semiconductor thin film transistors. The cut-off wavelength of plasmonic filters can be designed by controlling the periodic nanopatterns, and cutting off the light, which can affect amorphous oxide semiconductors, thereby realizing the photostable transparent electronic devices.

  6. Highlights

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    1. Photo-Insensitive Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Integrated with a Plasmonic Filter for Transparent Electronics (pages 3482–3487)

      Seongpil Chang, Yun Seon Do, Jong-Woo Kim, Bo Yeon Hwang, Jinnil Choi, Byung-Hyun Choi, Yun-Hi Lee, Kyung Cheol Choi and Byeong-Kwon Ju

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304114

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      A novel amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide-based application with stable switching characteristics under negative bias illumination is shown. Metallic nanohole-based plasmonic filters are used for tuning the spectrum of the ambient light source, and the photosensitivity of the a-IGZO-TFT is investigated within a selectively controlled spectral range. The suggested thin-film transistors show greatly improved stability even in a negative bias illumination stress environment.

  7. Frontispiece

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      Magnets: Artificial Magnetic Bacteria: Living Magnets at Room Temperature (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2014) (page 3488)

      Miguel Martín, Fernando Carmona, Rafael Cuesta, Deyanira Rondón, Natividad Gálvez and José M. Domínguez-Vera

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470152

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      With the aim of mimicking the functionality of magnetotactic bacteria, N. Gálvez, J. M. Domínguez-Vera, and co-workers create ‘artificial magnetic bacteria’. The decoration of non-magnetic probiotic bacteria with several thousands of magnetic nanoparticles on their external surfaces induces them to behave as magnets at room temperature. Therefore, they become directionally arranged following the magnetic field lines when submitted to a magnetic field, as it occurs with magnetic bacteria. After grafting the magnetic nanoparticles, the artificial magnetic bacteria remain alive. In fact they are converted into living magnets at room temperature.

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    1. Artificial Magnetic Bacteria: Living Magnets at Room Temperature (pages 3489–3493)

      Miguel Martín, Fernando Carmona, Rafael Cuesta, Deyanira Rondón, Natividad Gálvez and José M. Domínguez-Vera

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303754

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      Living magnets from probiotic (non-magnetic) bacteria are created by assembling superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles at their surface. The artificial magnetic bacteria present a ferromagnetic phase at room temperature. This means that the blocking temperature of the maghemite nanoparticles increases more than 100 K when assembled.

    2. Dynamic Control Over Electronic Transport in 3D Bulk Nanographene via Interfacial Charging (pages 3494–3500)

      Subho Dasgupta, Di Wang, Christian Kübel, Horst Hahn, Theodore F. Baumann and Jürgen Biener

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303534

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      The electron transport properties of centimeter-sized 3D bulk nano graphene monoliths can be dynamically controlled via electrolyte gating-induced interfacial charge density. A fully reversible change in the macroscopic conductance is observed despite the high conductivity of the material. The exceptionally large yet tunable current through such metallic and bulk channel paves the way towards high-power bulk transistors.

    3. Direct Writing of Gallium-Indium Alloy for Stretchable Electronics (pages 3501–3507)

      J. William Boley, Edward L. White, George T.-C. Chiu and Rebecca K. Kramer

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303220

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      A novel method for directly writing liquid gallium-indium alloy is presented. In addition to the basic characterization of the direct writing process, a design algorithm for process stability is also developed. The method is employed to fabricate a strain gauge exhibiting an approximately linear behavior through strains of 50% with a gauge factor of 1.5.

    4. Beam-Induced Fe Nanopillars as Tunable Domain-Wall Pinning Sites (pages 3508–3514)

      Jeroen H. Franken, Mark A. J. van der Heijden, Tim H. Ellis, Reinoud Lavrijsen, Carsten Daniels, Damien McGrouther, Henk J. M. Swagten and Bert Koopmans

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303540

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      Vertical magnetic nanopillars grown by electron-beam induced deposition are used to control pinning of magnetic domain walls, moving through an underlying conduit. The pinning strength depends on the height and magnetic state of the pillars, and this is used to determine the switching field of the pillars themselves.

    5. Electro-Drawn Drug-Loaded Biodegradable Polymer Microneedles as a Viable Route to Hypodermic Injection (pages 3515–3523)

      Raffaele Vecchione, Sara Coppola, Eliana Esposito, Costantino Casale, Veronica Vespini, Simonetta Grilli, Pietro Ferraro and Paolo Antonio Netti

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303679

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      Biodegradable polymer microneedles represent a promising tool in transdermal drug delivery field. Here, a new fabrication approach based on polymer solution electro-drawing is presented. Microneedles produced with this technique can be obtained directly onto flexible substrate with controlled shape and can indent epithelium layer of animal skin. Furthermore, microneedles can be loaded with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic active compounds.

    6. Effect of Non-Chlorinated Mixed Solvents on Charge Transport and Morphology of Solution-Processed Polymer Field-Effect Transistors (pages 3524–3534)

      Wen-Ya Lee, Gaurav Giri, Ying Diao, Christopher J. Tassone, James R. Matthews, Michael L. Sorensen, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Wen-Chang Chen, Hon H. Fong, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Michael F. Toney, Mingqian He and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303794

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      A non-chlorinated mixed solvent system, composed by tetrahydronaphthalene and p-­xylene, is demonstrated for high mobility thin film transistors. By optimizing the ­ratio of the two solvents, charge transport characteristics are significantly ­improved for polymer devices deposited by spin coating and solution shearing. The non-chlorinated mixed solvents provide a practical and environmentally-friendly approach to achieve high performance polymer transistor devices.

    7. Highly Photo-Responsive LaTiO2N Photoanodes by Improvement of Charge Carrier Transport among Film Particles (pages 3535–3542)

      Jianyong Feng, Wenjun Luo, Tao Fang, Hao Lv, Zhiqiang Wang, Jian Gao, Wenming Liu, Tao Yu, Zhaosheng Li and Zhigang Zou

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304046

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      Poor electron transport associated with insufficient inter-particle connection is revealed to contribute to suppressed photoelectrochemical activities of LaTiO2N photoanodes. By establishing highly crystalline porous LaTiO2N particles and superior inter-particle connectivity with reduced grain boundary density among the film particles, a record plateau photocurrent of 6.5 mA cm−2 is demonstrated for Co3O4 modified LaTiO2N photoanodes under simulated sunlight.

    8. Crystallization-Induced Phase Separation in Solution-Processed Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells (pages 3543–3550)

      Alexander Sharenko, Martijn Kuik, Michael F. Toney and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304100

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      The relationship between donor crystallization and blend phase separation is investigated in solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using in-situ thermal annealing grazing incidence X-ray scattering. Based on these data as well as blend electrical properties measured as a function of annealing temperature, it is hypothesized that donor crystallization is the driving force for the development of blend phase separation.

    9. Towards High Efficiency and Low Roll-Off Orange Electrophosphorescent Devices by Fine Tuning Singlet and Triplet Energies of Bipolar Hosts Based on Indolocarbazole/1, 3, 5-Triazine Hybrids (pages 3551–3561)

      Dongdong Zhang, Lian Duan, Yilang Li, Haoyuan Li, Zhengyang Bin, Deqiang Zhang, Juan Qiao, Guifang Dong, Liduo Wang and Yong Qiu

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303926

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      A series of indolocarbazole/1, 3, 5-triazine hybrids are designed and prepared as hosts for phosphorescent orange-emitting diodes. Singlet-triplet splitting and carrier injection/transporting are adjusted by introducing moieties with different electronegativity. By harmonizing the optical and electrical properties, high efficiency with ultra-low roll-off is realized in the device.

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      Improved Exciton Dissociation at Semiconducting Polymer:ZnO Donor:Acceptor Interfaces via Nitrogen Doping of ZnO (pages 3562–3570)

      Kevin P. Musselman, Sebastian Albert-Seifried, Robert L. Z. Hoye, Aditya Sadhanala, David Muñoz-Rojas, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303994

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      Nitrogen doping of ZnO is shown to dramatically improve exciton dissociation at the interface between ZnO and a conjugated polymer. The improvements in exciton dissociation and device photocurrent follow from a reduction in the ZnO electron concentration and enhanced light-induced de-trapping of electrons from the surface of the nitrogen-doped ZnO.

    11. Fabrication and Spatially Resolved Functionalization of 3D Microstructures via Multiphoton-Induced Diels–Alder Chemistry (pages 3571–3580)

      Alexander S. Quick, Hannah Rothfuss, Alexander Welle, Benjamin Richter, Joachim Fischer, Martin Wegener and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304030

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      A light-induced Diels–Alder reaction is employed for the fabrication and the spatially resolved surface patterning of 3D microstructures using a direct laser writing setup. Woodpile photonic crystals with a lateral rod spacing of 700–500 nm are fabricated and characterized via SEM, FIB milling, and transmission/reflection spectroscopy. Covalent surface patterning of the KIT-logo is verified using ToF-SIMS.

    12. Ultrahigh Responsivity of Ternary Sb–Bi–Se Nanowire Photodetectors (pages 3581–3586)

      Rong Huang, Jie Zhang, Fenfen Wei, Lin Shi, Tao Kong and Guosheng Cheng

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304176

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      The remarkable responsivity of an Sb–Bi–Se nanowire-based photodetector is reported. The spectra responsivity and external quantum efficiency of an (Sb0.44Bi0.56)2Se3 nanowire photodetector reaches as high as ≈1.6 × 106%, ≈1000-times faster than that of a binary Sb2Se3 nanowire. Meanwhile, an underlying mechanism of surface Se vacancies and augmented oxygen chemisorptions is proposed to interpret these phenomena.

    13. Highly Improved Sb2S3 Sensitized-Inorganic–Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells and Quantification of Traps by Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (pages 3587–3592)

      Yong Chan Choi, Dong Uk Lee, Jun Hong Noh, Eun Kyu Kim and Sang Il Seok

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304238

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      The light-harvesting Sb2S3 surface on mesoporous-TiO2 in inorganic–organic heterojunction solar cells is sulfurized with thioacetamide. Through such a simple treatment, the cell records an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.5% under simulated illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm−2) and the performance enhancement is mainly attributed to the extinction of trap sites by deep-level transient spectroscopy analysis.

    14. Modification of the Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide Surface with Self-Assembled Monolayers of Phosphonic Acids: A Joint Theoretical and Experimental Study (pages 3593–3603)

      Hong Li, Erin L. Ratcliff, Ajaya K. Sigdel, Anthony J. Giordano, Seth R. Marder, Joseph J. Berry and Jean-Luc Brédas

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303670

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      The surface modifications of gallium-doped zinc oxide with a series of self-assembled phosphonic acid monolayers are investigated. Excellent agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental results regarding the surface work-function modification, the O 1s core-level binding energy shifts, and the enery level alignment between the highest occupied molecular orbitals of the modifiers and the valence band maximum of the surface.

    15. The Size Dependence of Hydrogen Mobility and Sorption Kinetics for Carbon-Supported MgH2 Particles (pages 3604–3611)

      Yuen S. Au, Margo Klein Obbink, Subramanian Srinivasan, Pieter C. M. M. Magusin, Krijn P. de Jong and Petra E. de Jongh

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304060

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      Supported MgH2 nanoparticles on carbon with different sizes are synthesized and show faster hydrogen mobility and sorption kinetics. Nanoparticles with sizes below 20 nm have a significant lower hydrogen release temperature and the mobility is three orders of magnitude faster compared to micrometer sized MgH2. The smaller the MgH2 particles, the lower the hydrogen release temperatures become.

    16. A Smart Nanoassembly for Multistage Targeted Drug Delivery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pages 3612–3620)

      Zhenhua Li, Kai Dong, Sa Huang, Enguo Ju, Zhen Liu, Meili Yin, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303662

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      A multistage continuous targeting strategy (targeting from tumor tissue, cancer cell to organelle) based on magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles, to achieve nucleus-targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy while simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal tissue, is demonstrated. In addition, this smart nanoassembly can be used as predominant contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    17. Creation of Bifunctional Materials: Improve Electron-Transporting Ability of Light Emitters Based on AIE-Active 2,3,4,5-Tetraphenylsiloles (pages 3621–3630)

      Long Chen, Yibin Jiang, Han Nie, Ping Lu, Herman H. Y. Sung, Ian D. Williams, Hoi Sing Kwok, Fei Huang, Anjun Qin, Zujin Zhao and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303867

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      Grafting dimesitylboryl groups onto 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsiloles generates efficient bifunctional materials that can simultaneously serve as light emitters and electron transporters in OLEDs. Remarkably high electroluminescence efficiencies up to 13.9 cd A−1, 4.35% and 11.6 lm W−1 are attained from the double-layer OLEDs based on them.

    18. Eleven-Membered Fused-Ring Low Band-Gap Polymer with Enhanced Charge Carrier Mobility and Photovoltaic Performance (pages 3631–3638)

      Yongxi Li, Kai Yao, Hin-Lap Yip, Fei-Zhi Ding, Yun-Xiang Xu, Xiaosong Li, Yu Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303953

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      A multi-ring, ladder-type low band-gap polymer (PIDTCPDT-DFBT) is developed to show enhanced light harvesting, charge transport, and photovoltaic performance. The rigidified polymer provides lower reorganizational energy, resulting in one order higher hole mobility than the reference polymer. The device made from PIDTCPDT-DFBT also shows a quite promising power conversion efficiency of 6.46%.

    19. Porous Silicon Resonant Microcavity Biosensor for Matrix Metalloproteinase Detection (pages 3639–3650)

      Fransiska S. H. Krismastuti, Stephanie Pace and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304053

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      An optical biosensor based on functionalized porous silicon resonance microcavity (pSiRM) using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) substrate containing a fluorophor and a quencher is demonstrated. The presence of MMP cleaves the substrate leaving the fluorophor on the pSiRM matrix which is now emitting the fluorescence. This biosensor sensitively and selectively detects the MMP in buffer solution and human wound fluid.

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