Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Advanced Functional Materials

June 25, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 24

Pages 3653–3833

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      Interfaces: Structure and Disorder in Squaraine–C60 Organic Solar Cells: A Theoretical Description of Molecular Packing and Electronic Coupling at the Donor–Acceptor Interface (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014) (page 3653)

      Yao-Tsung Fu, Demetrio A. da Silva Filho, Gjergji Sini, Abdullah M. Asiri, Saadullah Gary Aziz, Chad Risko and Jean-Luc Brédas

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470155

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      Theoretical models of the squaraine-C60 donor–acceptor interface reported on page 3790 by C. Risko, J.-L. Brédas, and co-workers probe how molecules pack, mix, and move and the subsequent impact on interfacial electronic properties of organic solar cells. The 3D molecular shape, disordered packing, and thermal motion at room temperature render electronic couplings small, regardless of the orientation of the underlying squaraine layers. Such insight is vital to develop a more robust understanding of the photoconversion process and offers principles for materials design.

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      Crystallization: Nanoparticle Growth via Concentration Gradients Generated by Enzyme Nanopatterns (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014) (page 3654)

      Roberto de la Rica, Erhan Bat, Karla L. Herpoldt, Hai-nan Xie, Sergio Bertazzo, Heather D. Maynard and Molly M. Stevens

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470156

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      Top-down e-beam lithography is combined with bottom-up bioinspired crystal growth by R. de la Rica, M. M. Stevens, and co-workers to grow nanoparticle clusters of controlled dimensions at desired locations on a chip. On page 3692, the key enabling factor to recreate biomineralization conditions is the patterning of enzyme nanoreactors as lines separated by nanometric distances such that the gradient of crystallization precursors generated by the enzymes is affected by the nanoscale organization of biocatalysts. Image Credit: Miguel Spuch-Calvar.

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      Thermochromic Sensors: Construction and Molecular Understanding of an Unprecedented, Reversibly Thermochromic Bis-Polydiacetylene (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014) (page 3836)

      Songyi Lee, Joonseong Lee, Minji Lee, Yu Kyung Cho, Junwoo Baek, Jinwook Kim, Sungnam Park, Myung Hwa Kim, Rakwoo Chang and Juyoung Yoon

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470161

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      A new type of bis-polydiacetylene (PDA), in which two PDAs are linked via an intervening p-phenylene group, displays excellent thermochromic reversibility. Clear blue-to-red and red-to-blue colorimetric transitions are observed by R. Chang, J. Yoon, and co-workers between 20 and 120 °C. The first theoretical simulation of the new PDA is reported on page 3699, the results of which successfully explain the thermochromic reversibility phenomenon.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014)

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470160

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014) (pages 3655–3660)

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470157

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      Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Based Fibers and Their Future Use in Electrical Wiring (pages 3661–3682)

      Agnieszka Lekawa-Raus, Jeff Patmore, Lukasz Kurzepa, John Bulmer and Krzysztof Koziol

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303716

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      Carbon nanotubes, with their unique properties, could make electrical conductors of unprecedented performance, which could revolutionize energy transport globally. Is it feasible to produce macroscopic conductors from nanoscale structures? This Feature Article presents both the most recent results of a highly promising research program in this area and the key challenges that need to be overcome.

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      Optical Waveguiding: Remote Biosensing with Polychromatic Optical Waveguide Using Blue Light-Emitting Organic Nanowires Hybridized with Quantum Dots (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014) (page 3683)

      Eun Hei Cho, Bong-Gi Kim, Sumin Jun, Jubok Lee, Dong Hyuk Park, Kwang-Sup Lee, Jeongyong Kim, Jinsang Kim and Jinsoo Joo

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470158

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      Polychromatic optical waveguiding is achieved for organic nanowires (NWs) hybridized with light-emitting quantum dots (QDs). Remote biosensing using dye-attached biomaterials is presented by J. Kim, J. Kim, J. Joo, and co-workers by adapting the transportation of QD-emitted light through the organic NWs. The cover image shows white-color waveguiding and remote biosensing using blue light-emitting organic NWs hybridized with QDs.

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    1. Remote Biosensing with Polychromatic Optical Waveguide Using Blue Light-Emitting Organic Nanowires Hybridized with Quantum Dots (pages 3684–3691)

      Eun Hei Cho, Bong-Gi Kim, Sumin Jun, Jubok Lee, Dong Hyuk Park, Kwang-Sup Lee, Jeongyong Kim, Jinsang Kim and Jinsoo Joo

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304039

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      Nanoscale polychromatic optical waveguides are demonstrated using a novel hybrid composite of highly crystalline blue light-emitting organic nanowires (NWs) combined with blue, green, and red CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The transportation of QD-emission through the highly packed π-conjugated organic NW enhanced the remote biosensing signal.

    2. Nanoparticle Growth via Concentration Gradients Generated by Enzyme Nanopatterns (pages 3692–3698)

      Roberto de la Rica, Erhan Bat, Karla L. Herpoldt, Hai-nan Xie, Sergio Bertazzo, Heather D. Maynard and Molly M. Stevens

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304047

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      Concentrations gradients generated by enzyme patterns guide the growth of gold nanostructures with programmable size, shape, and state of aggregation. When the patterns are separated by nanometric distances, clusters of highly crystallographically aligned gold nanoscrystals are obtained, which suggests that the nanoparticles grow via biomimetic non-classical crystal growth conditions.

    3. Construction and Molecular Understanding of an Unprecedented, Reversibly Thermochromic Bis-Polydiacetylene (pages 3699–3705)

      Songyi Lee, Joonseong Lee, Minji Lee, Yu Kyung Cho, Junwoo Baek, Jinwook Kim, Sungnam Park, Myung Hwa Kim, Rakwoo Chang and Juyoung Yoon

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304147

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      The Bis-PDA-Ph (two PDAs are linked via an intervening p-phenylene group) displays exceptional thermochromic reversibility with a blue to red colorimetric transition at elevated temperatures. To elucidate the molecular origin of the thermochromic response, a theoretical simulation of the new PDA which explains the reversibility phenomenon, is conducted. Furthermore, Bis-PDA-Ph-embedded fibers display excellent reversibility between 20–120 °C.

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      Localized Collection of Airborne Analytes: A Transport Driven Approach to Improve the Response Time of Existing Gas Sensor Designs (pages 3706–3714)

      Jun Fang, Se-Chul Park, Leslie Schlag, Thomas Stauden, Jörg Pezoldt and Heiko O. Jacobs

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303829

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      In the field of sensors that target the detection of airborne analytes, the corona/lens-based-collection provide a new path to achieve high sensitivity which impacts the researches ranging from environmental monitoring systems to the detection of chemical/biological warfare agents. Specifically, it provides a route to transport, concentrate, and collect the airborn species to precise sensing points to improve the collection efficiency.

    5. Arrayed rGOSH/PMASH Microcapsule Platform Integrating Surface Topography, Chemical Cues, and Electrical Stimulation for Three-Dimensional Neuron-Like Cell Growth and Neurite Sprouting (pages 3715–3724)

      Heng-Wen Liu, Wei-Chen Huang, Chih-Sheng Chiang, Shang-Hsiu Hu, Chia-Hsin Liao, You-Yin Chen and San-Yuan Chen

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303853

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      The stimulus-responsive, well-ordered rGOSH/PMASH microcapsules are arrayed into a 3-D ECM-mimic flexible substrate to accelerate the proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells by controlling NGF release and manipulating rGOSH/PMASH microcapsule interfaces. A combination of surface topography, chemical cues, and electrical stimulation not only has positive effects on cell viability but also strongly enhances the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells.

    6. Efficient Self-Assembly Synthesis of Uniform CdS Spherical Nanoparticles-Au Nanoparticles Hybrids with Enhanced Photoactivity (pages 3725–3733)

      Sancan Han, Linfeng Hu, Nan Gao, Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi and Xiaosheng Fang

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400012

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      The CdS SNPs-Au NPs hybrids are firstly fabricated through gold-sulfur bonding interaction, which meets the needs for reliable interfacial contact between the semiconductor and Au NPs. This facile strategy can be extended to the synthesis of other binary semiconductor hybrids. The as-fabricated CdS SNPs-Au NPs hybrids are very promising for application in degradation of organic pollutants.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Efficient Self-Assembly Synthesis of Uniform CdS Spherical Nanoparticles-Au Nanoparticles Hybrids with Enhanced Photoactivity

      Vol. 24, Issue 41, 6412, Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014

    7. Enhancing Field-Effect Mobility of Conjugated Polymers Through Rational Design of Branched Side Chains (pages 3734–3744)

      Boyi Fu, Jose Baltazar, Ashwin Ravi Sankar, Ping-Hsun Chu, Siyuan Zhang, David M. Collard and Elsa Reichmanis

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304231

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      5-Decylheptadecyl (5-DH), 2-tetradecyl (2-DT), and n -octadecyl (OD) side chains are substituted into pTBTD polymer backbone. The branching position is remote or close to pTBTD in 5-DH and 2-DT. 5-DH merges advantages of branched units (2-DT) for improving solubility with those of linear chains (OD) in providing effective π–π intermolecular interactions. 5-DH substituted pTBTD exhibits a field-effect hole mobility reaching 2.95 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    8. Direct-Current Triboelectric Generator (pages 3745–3750)

      Ya Yang, Hulin Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304295

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      The first direct-current triboelectric generator (DC-TEG) for harvesting mechanical energy from rotational motion is reported. The DC-TEG consists of two rotating wheels and one belt for connecting them, which are made of different triboelectric materials. The DC-TEG can be utilized to light up 1020 commercial LEDs and the produced energy can also be stored in a capacitor for other uses.

    9. Nanopatterned Polymer Brushes for Triggered Detachment of Anchorage-Dependent Cells (pages 3751–3759)

      Qian Yu, Leah M. Johnson and Gabriel P. López

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304274

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      Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes are nanopatterned via interferometric lithography and surface-initiated polymerization to support mammalian cell harvesting. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), collapsed PNIPAAm brushes expose extracellular matrix proteins on the underlying substrate to support cellular attachment. As the temperature decreases below the LCST, swollen, extended PNIPAAm nanopatterned brushes readily release attached cells.

    10. Turning ZnO into an Efficient Energy Upconversion Material by Defect Engineering (pages 3760–3764)

      Jan E. Stehr, Shula L. Chen, Nandanapalli Koteeswara Reddy, Charles W. Tu, Weimin M. Chen and Irina A. Buyanova

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400220

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      ZnO can be engineered via a common intrinsic defect into an efficient energy upconversion material. This finding paves the way for designing ZnO devices in which the energy upconversion can be exploited for improved and new photonic and photovoltaic applications.

    11. In situ Characterization of SiO2 Nanoparticle Biointeractions Using BrightSilica (pages 3765–3775)

      Daniela Drescher, Ingrid Zeise, Heike Traub, Peter Guttmann, Stephan Seifert, Tina Büchner, Norbert Jakubowski, Gerd Schneider and Janina Kneipp

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304126

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      BrightSilica nanoparticles have a silica surface and a gold core. They provide information about their interaction with biological cells via three different approaches: 1) surface-enhanced Raman scattering for characterization of the biomolecular species interacting with the silica sub-/surface; 2) quantification of the uptake of silica-like nanostructures by mass spectrometric micromapping, and; 3) understanding the 3D subcellular interaction using synchrotron X-ray nanotomography.

    12. High Performance Mg2(Si,Sn) Solid Solutions: a Point Defect Chemistry Approach to Enhancing Thermoelectric Properties (pages 3776–3781)

      Guangyu Jiang, Jian He, Tiejun Zhu, Chenguang Fu, Xiaohua Liu, Lipeng Hu and Xinbing Zhao

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400123

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      A new point defect chemistry approach is proposed for enhancing thermoelectric properties, and demonstrated in typical Mg2(Si,Sn) based thermoelectric materials via synergistically implementing the point defects of Sb dopants, Mg vacancies, and Mg interstitials. High doping ratio of Sb facilitates the formation of Mg vacancies, which act as both acceptors and phonon scatters, and significantly reduce the lattice thermal conductivity.

  9. Frontispiece

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      Organic Electronics: “Regioselective Deposition” Method to Pattern Silver Electrodes Facilely and Efficiently with High Resolution: Towards All-Solution-Processed, High-Performance, Bottom-Contacted, Flexible, Polymer-Based Electronics (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2014) (page 3782)

      Deyang Ji, Lang Jiang, Yunlong Guo, Huanli Dong, Jianpu Wang, Huajie Chen, Qing Meng, Xiaolong Fu, Guofeng Tian, Dezhen Wu, Gui Yu, Yunqi Liu and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470159

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      Small reaction, big application! The silver mirror reaction is a straightforward way to produce silver films, and can be performed using cheap reactants in aqueous solutions. Here, it is successfully introduced into organic electronics by L. Jiang, H. Dong, G. Yu, W. Hu, and co-workers, and applied to the process of fabricating flexible, high-performance, large-area, all-solution-processable organic fieldeffect transistors at room temperature with high resolution.

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    1. “Regioselective Deposition” Method to Pattern Silver Electrodes Facilely and Efficiently with High Resolution: Towards All-Solution-Processed, High-Performance, Bottom-Contacted, Flexible, Polymer-Based Electronics (pages 3783–3789)

      Deyang Ji, Lang Jiang, Yunlong Guo, Huanli Dong, Jianpu Wang, Huajie Chen, Qing Meng, Xiaolong Fu, Guofeng Tian, Dezhen Wu, Gui Yu, Yunqi Liu and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304117

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      Large-area, flexible, high-performance all-solution-processed polymer field-effect transistors are fabricated with bottom-contact configuration with the help of “regioselectivity deposition” method. The polymer devices exhibit high performance (the highest mobility up to 1.5 cm2 V−1 s−1) and excellent environmental stability and flexibility, indicating the cost effectiveness of this method for practical applications in organic electronics.

    2. Structure and Disorder in Squaraine–C60 Organic Solar Cells: A Theoretical Description of Molecular Packing and Electronic Coupling at the Donor–Acceptor Interface (pages 3790–3798)

      Yao-Tsung Fu, Demetrio A. da Silva Filho, Gjergji Sini, Abdullah M. Asiri, Saadullah Gary Aziz, Chad Risko and Jean-Luc Brédas

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303941

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      A combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanics approach reveals the complex landscape of the intermolecular electronic couplings at the squaraine–C60 (donor–acceptor) bilayer interface as a function of the interfacial molecular packing and dynamics. Such aspects are of importance when considering the operation of organic solar cells.

    3. Liquid Metal/Metal Oxide Frameworks (pages 3799–3807)

      Wei Zhang, Jian Zhen Ou, Shi-Yang Tang, Vijay Sivan, David D. Yao, Kay Latham, Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Arnan Mitchell, Anthony P. O'Mullane and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304064

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      A new platform described as the liquid metal/metal oxide (LM/MO) framework is introduced. The constituent spherical structures of these frameworks are made of micro- to nanosized liquid metal spheres and nanosized metal oxides. These LM/MO frameworks demonstrate high sensitivity towards low concentrations of heavy metal ions and enhanced solar light driven photocalalytic activities.

    4. Polyethylene Imine as an Ideal Interlayer for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3808–3814)

      Young-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hee Han, Himchan Cho, Sung-Yong Min, Chang-Lyoul Lee and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304163

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      Efficient and air-stable inverted polymer-light emitting diodes (IPLEDs) can be realized by using insulating polymer electron-injecting interlayers (ILs), branched polyethyleneimine (PEI), and polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE), giving highest current efficiencies of 13.5 cd A-1 and 12 cd A-1, respectively. Polymer ILs can facilitate electron injection into emitting layer as well as block the exciton quenching.

    5. Three-Dimensional Co3O4@MnO2 Hierarchical Nanoneedle Arrays: Morphology Control and Electrochemical Energy Storage (pages 3815–3826)

      Dezhi Kong, Jingshan Luo, Yanlong Wang, Weina Ren, Ting Yu, Yongsong Luo, Yaping Yang and Chuanwei Cheng

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304206

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      Highly ordered Co3O4@MnO2 hierachical core–shell arrays on Ni foam are fabricated by a facile, stepwise hydrothermal approach and further investigated as anodes for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries (LIBs), which present greatly improved performance.

    6. Vapor Phase Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon (pages 3827–3833)

      Owen J. Hildreth and Daniel R. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304129

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      To overcome non-uniformity and microporous silicon generation seen in traditional liquid-phase metal-assisted chemical etching, vapor-phase metal-assisted chemical etching (VP-MaCE) is used instead. The etch rate is evaluated as a function of catalyst, time, and substrate temperature.

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