Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 31

August 20, 2014

Volume 24, Issue 31

Pages 4869–5018

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      Printed Electronics: Room-Temperature Printing of Organic Thin-Film Transistors with π-Junction Gold Nanoparticles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014) (page 4869)

      Takeo Minari, Yuki Kanehara, Chuan Liu, Kenji Sakamoto, Takeshi Yasuda, Asuka Yaguchi, Shigemi Tsukada, Kei Kashizaki and Masayuki Kanehara

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470204

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      T. Minari, M. Kanehara, and co-workers report a method for the room-temperature printing of electronics using gold nanoparticles, enabling semiconductor devices to be printed without the application of heat. On page 4886, organic thinfilm transistors are formed on plastic and paper through room-temperature printing, producing devices with mobilities of 7.9 and 2.5 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. The proposed approach permits the printing of devices on any heat-sensitive substrate, such as plastic, paper, or biomaterials.

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      Ionene Hydrogels: Synergistic Computational-Experimental Approach to Improve Ionene Polymer-Based Functional Hydrogels (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014) (page 4870)

      Jürgen Bachl, David Zanuy, Daniel E. López-Pérez, Guillermo Revilla-López, Carlos Cativiela, Carlos Alemán and David Díaz Díaz

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470205

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      The topological constraints necessary to enhance hydrogel gelation efficiency are explored by C. Alemán, D. D. Díaz, and co-workers. On page 4893, the performance of hydrogels made from DABCO-containing ionene polymers is studied and compared based on the critical gelation concentration, gelation kinetics, thermal and mechanical stability, optical properties, and dispersion ability for single-walled carbon nanotubes.

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      Cellular Solids: Three-Dimensional Printing of Elastomeric, Cellular Architectures with Negative Stiffness (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014) (page 5020)

      Eric B. Duoss, Todd H. Weisgraber, Keith Hearon, Cheng Zhu, Ward Small IV, Thomas R. Metz, John J. Vericella, Holly D. Barth, Joshua D. Kuntz, Robert S. Maxwell, Christopher M. Spadaccini and Thomas S. Wilson

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470210

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      Three-dimensional printing of viscoelastic inks is demonstrated by E. B. Duoss, C. M. Spadaccini, T. S. Wilson, and co-workers on page 4905. This technique is shown to create porous, elastomeric architectures with highly controlled mechanical properties, exhibiting markedly distinct load responses with directionally dependent behavior, including negative shear stiffness.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014)

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470209

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014) (pages 4871–4876)

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470206

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      Graphene: Oxygen-Free Highly Conductive Graphene Papers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014) (page 4877)

      Petr Šimek, Zdeněk Sofer, Ondřej Jankovský, David Sedmidubský and Martin Pumera

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470207

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      Oxygen-free graphene storms over the desert of the Canyonlands National Park in the USA. On page 4878, a unique process for the preparation of highly conductive, thin graphene paper is demonstrated by Z. Sofer, M. Pumera, and co-workers. They irradiate graphene oxide (GO) papers with Ar+ ion, reducing the carbon/oxygen ratio to 100:1. Such highly conductive graphene papers have great potential to be used in applications for the construction of microelectronic and sensor devices.

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    1. Oxygen-Free Highly Conductive Graphene Papers (pages 4878–4885)

      Petr Šimek, Zdeněk Sofer, Ondřej Jankovský, David Sedmidubský and Martin Pumera

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304284

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      Graphene papers are prepared by irradiation of graphene oxide papers with Ar+ ion beam. Surface of the paper is chemically reduced and C/O ratios over 100 are achieved. The resulting surface is highly conductive and electrical Ohmic behavior is observed. Gases evolved during irradiation process are also analyzed.

    2. Room-Temperature Printing of Organic Thin-Film Transistors with π-Junction Gold Nanoparticles (pages 4886–4892)

      Takeo Minari, Yuki Kanehara, Chuan Liu, Kenji Sakamoto, Takeshi Yasuda, Asuka Yaguchi, Shigemi Tsukada, Kei Kashizaki and Masayuki Kanehara

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400169

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      Room-temperature printed electronics are realized as a low-cost, large-area fabrication method for flexible electronic devices. Development of a π-junction gold nanoparticle ink enables the formation of fully printed organic thin-film transistors under atmospheric conditions at room temperature. The printed transistor devices exhibit average field-effect mobilities of 7.9 and 2.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 on plastic and paper substrates, respectively.

    3. Synergistic Computational-Experimental Approach to Improve Ionene Polymer-Based Functional Hydrogels (pages 4893–4904)

      Jürgen Bachl, David Zanuy, Daniel E. López-Pérez, Guillermo Revilla-López, Carlos Cativiela, Carlos Alemán and David Díaz Díaz

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304230

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      A combined computational-experimental approach identifies the topological constraints necessary to enhance gelation efficiency and achieve superior properties of hydrogels made from DABCO-containing ionene polymers. The best performance of studied ionenes is established based on the critical gelation concentration, gelation kinetics, thermal and mechanical stability, optical properties, and dispersion ability for single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    4. Three-Dimensional Printing of Elastomeric, Cellular Architectures with Negative Stiffness (pages 4905–4913)

      Eric B. Duoss, Todd H. Weisgraber, Keith Hearon, Cheng Zhu, Ward Small IV, Thomas R. Metz, John J. Vericella, Holly D. Barth, Joshua D. Kuntz, Robert S. Maxwell, Christopher M. Spadaccini and Thomas S. Wilson

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400451

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      Three-dimensional printing of viscoelastic inks to create porous, elastomeric architectures with mechanical properties governed by the ordered arrangement of their sub-millimeter struts, is reported. Two layouts are patterned, one resembling a “simple cubic”-like structure and another akin to a “face-centered tetragonal” configuration. These mechanical metamaterials exhibit markedly distinct load response with directionally dependent behavior, including negative shear stiffness.

  8. Frontispiece

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      Graphene Oxide: Ultrafast Fabrication of Covalently Cross-linked Multifunctional Graphene Oxide Monoliths (Adv. Funct. Mater. 31/2014) (page 4914)

      Wubo Wan, Lingli Li, Zongbin Zhao, Han Hu, Xiaojuan Hao, David A. Winkler, Lingcong Xi, Timothy C. Hughes and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201470208

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      A rapid and facile technique to fabricate 3D graphene oxide monoliths (GOMs) by covalently cross-linking GO sheets with a poly(oxypropylene) diamine is demonstrated on page 4915 by T. C. Hughes, J. S. Qiu, and co-workers in a collaboration between Dalian University of Technology, China, and CSIRO, Australia. The GOMs behave like an elastic hydrogel and can be molded into functional materials with many desired shapes for diverse applications, for example, for water treatment and for biomedical uses.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
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    1. Ultrafast Fabrication of Covalently Cross-linked Multifunctional Graphene Oxide Monoliths (pages 4915–4921)

      Wubo Wan, Lingli Li, Zongbin Zhao, Han Hu, Xiaojuan Hao, David A. Winkler, Lingcong Xi, Timothy C. Hughes and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303815

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      An ultrafast cross-linking method for the fabrication of graphene oxide monoliths (GOM) with poly(oxypropylene) diamines as a cross-linker is reported. This method can form self-assembled 3D GO structures with controllable interlayer spacing. The covalently bonded GOM structure demonstrates high cell viability, could be molded into various shapes, and when hydrated behaves like an elastic hydrogel.

    2. Digital Plasmonic Patterning for Localized Tuning of Hydrogel Stiffness (pages 4922–4926)

      Kolin C. Hribar, Yu Suk Choi, Matthew Ondeck, Adam J. Engler and Shaochen Chen

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400274

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      Digital plasmonic patterning (DPP) is developed to mechanically pattern a hydrogel encapsulated with gold nanorods in a digital fashion. DPP can provide orders of magnitude changes in the hydrogel stiffness, and can be tuned by laser intensity and writing speed, in addition to any digital pattern, making it a potentially useful technique for patterning hydrogels for various biomedical applications.

    3. High Precision, Electrochemical Detection of Reversible Binding of Recombinant Proteins on Wide Bandgap GaN Electrodes Functionalized with Biomembrane Models (pages 4927–4934)

      Nataliya Frenkel, Jens Wallys, Sara Lippert, Jörg Teubert, Stefan Kaufmann, Aparna Das, Eva Monroy, Martin Eickhoff and Motomu Tanaka

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400388

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      Hybrid materials based on wide bandgap GaN and cell membrane models can be operated as an electrochemical charge sensor, which sensitively detects changes in the surface potentials caused by the reversible docking of recombinant proteins to the lipid anchors. By transferring such constructs on quantum dot structures, the potential changes can also be detected by their photoluminescence intensity.

    4. Harnessing Multiple Folding Mechanisms in Soft Periodic Structures for Tunable Control of Elastic Waves (pages 4935–4942)

      Sicong Shan, Sung H. Kang, Pai Wang, Cangyu Qu, Samuel Shian, Elizabeth R. Chen and Katia Bertoldi

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400665

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      By controlling the loading direction, multiple pattern transformations can be induced by buckling in a triangular array of circular holes embedded in an elastic material. Interestingly, these different pattern transformations can be exploited to tune the propagation of elastic waves in the system, enhancing the tunability of its dynamic response.

    5. Polymorphism in Crystalline Microfibers of Achiral Octithiophene: The Effect on Charge Transport, Supramolecular Chirality and Optical Properties (pages 4943–4951)

      Francesca Di Maria, Eduardo Fabiano, Denis Gentili, Mariano Biasiucci, Tommaso Salzillo, Giacomo Bergamini, Massimo Gazzano, Alberto Zanelli, Aldo Brillante, Massimiliano Cavallini, Fabio Della Sala, Giuseppe Gigli and Giovanna Barbarella

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400534

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      A sulfur overrich octithiophene forms stable polymorfic crystalline microfibers separately and reproducibly grown on glass, ITO, and an interdigitated electrode/SiO2 surface of a bottom-contact field-effect transistor. The effects of polymorphism on functional properties are reported. DFT calculations suggest the polymorphism to be conformational in nature.

    6. In Situ Electrical Characterization of Anatase TiO2 Quantum Dots (pages 4952–4958)

      Johanna Engel, Sean R. Bishop, Lionel Vayssieres and Harry L. Tuller

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400203

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      Anatase TiO2 quantum dots exhibit a Frenkel defect disorder when characterized as loose powder in a modified dilatometer setup, which allows electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. In addition, lateral expansion indicates necessity of preconditioning to attain equilibrium electronic parameters by eliminating protonic conduction on the surface of the quantum dots.

    7. Aligned Polythiophene and its Blend Film by Direct-Writing for Anisotropic Charge Transport (pages 4959–4968)

      Guanghao Lu, Jiayue Chen, Wentao Xu, Sijun Li and Xiaoniu Yang

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400699

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      A direct-writing method is used to prepare aligned semiconducting poly(3-butylthiophene) (P3BT) and its blend films with both optical and electrical anisotropy. An increased field-effect mobility of aligned P3BT/polystyrene blends, as compared with neat P3BT, is observed in both vertical and parallel directions. The mobility and threshold voltage are comprehensively tuned, from which a digital inverter with gain up to 80 is realized.

    8. Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities (pages 4969–4977)

      Vikram K. Srivastava, Ronald A. Quinlan, Alexander L. Agapov, John R. Dunlap, Kimberly M. Nelson, Edward Duranty, Alexei P. Sokolov, Gajanan S. Bhat and Jimmy W. Mays

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400484

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      Restacked, layered compounds of graphite, molybdenum disulfide, and boron nitride are ideal materials for electronic devices, censors, and reinforced materials. A high-yielding process using sonochemical fragmentation of precursor powders with antioxidants is performed to generate modified restacked materials. The restacked powders demonstrate unique chemical, thermal, dispersive, and electrical properties that are desirable for polymer composites and other hybrid materials.

    9. Defect-Minimized PEDOT:PSS/Planar-Si Solar Cell with Very High Efficiency (pages 4978–4985)

      Joseph Palathinkal Thomas and Kam Tong Leung

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400380

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      Interface properties of planar hybrid solar cells, PEDOT:PSS/SiOx/Si, are influenced by the amount of surfactant and co-solvent in PEDOT:PSS. The three-dimensional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry chemical images reveal a minimal-defect interface for the high efficiency cells, in comparison with more micropore defects at the interface for low efficiency devices. A very high PCE of 13.3% is achieved under optimized conditions.

    10. Self-Healing Reduced Graphene Oxide Films by Supersonic Kinetic Spraying (pages 4986–4995)

      Do-Yeon Kim, Suman Sinha-Ray, Jung-Jae Park, Jong-Gun Lee, You-Hong Cha, Sang-Hoon Bae, Jong-Hyun Ahn, Yong Chae Jung, Soo Min Kim, Alexander L. Yarin and Sam S. Yoon

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400732

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      Deposition of r-graphene oxide (r-GO) onto a glass slide. r-GO sheets stretch upon impact. Pentagonal and heptagonal r-GO sheets undergo bond translation. The resulting “frozen elastic strains” heal the defects (topological defects, namely Stone-Wales and C2 vacancies) in the r-GO flakes, which is reflected in the reduced ratio of the intensities of the D and G bands in the deposited film.

    11. A Catalytic and Shape-Memory Polymer Reactor (pages 4996–5001)

      Yanli Han, Xinhua Yuan, Maiyong Zhu, Songjun Li, Michael J. Whitcombe and Sergey A. Piletsky

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400768

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      An originally designed polymer reactor composed of a thermosensitive control layer and an inert substrate layer is reported. With the inert substrate layer made of poly(acrylamide), the thermosensitive control layer consists of nickel nanoparticles and a unique polymer composite of poly(1-vinylimidazole) and poly(acrylic acid) that exhibit thermosensitive interactions. The self-healing and dissociation of the thermosensitive interactions induce convex/concave-switchable shapes in the resulting reactor, which cause tunable access to the encapsulated metal nanoparticles. In this way, this reactor demonstrates tunable catalytic ability.

    12. Efficient Directed Energy Transfer through Size-Gradient Nanocrystal Layers into Silicon Substrates (pages 5002–5010)

      William J. I. De Benedetti, Michael T. Nimmo, Sara M. Rupich, Louis M. Caillard, Yuri N. Gartstein, Yves J. Chabal and Anton V. Malko

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400667

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      Size-gradient CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal bilayer structures are fabricated on Si substrates in a layer-by-layer architecture with assistance of chemical linkers. Efficient energy transfer is demonstrated from photoexcited nanocrystals into the substrate as achieved via cascaded non-radiative and direct radiative couplings. This supports the concept of excitonic sensitization of ultrathin Si layers from the adjacent nanocrystal assemblies for photovoltaic applications.

    13. Bio-Inspired Preparation of Fibrin-Boned Bionanocomposites of Biomacromolecules and Nanomaterials for Biosensing (pages 5011–5018)

      Fangfang Han, Xin Qi, Lingyan Li, Lijuan Bu, Yingchun Fu, Qingji Xie, Manli Guo, Yanbin Li, Yibin Ying and Shouzhuo Yao

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400458

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      Inspired by blood coagulation, fibrin-boned bionanocomposites are presented as efficient matrices of biomacromolecules and nanomaterials for biosensing applications. The fibrin-boned networks show promising properties, endowing the bionanocomposites with high efficiency in capturing Au nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase, even at 99%, 98%, and 57%, respectively, as well as significant mass-transfer and biocatalysis efficiencies.

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