Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 6

February 10, 2017

Volume 27, Issue 6

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      Exoskeletons: AFM Identification of Beetle Exocuticle: Bouligand Structure and Nanofiber Anisotropic Elastic Properties (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Ruiguo Yang, Alireza Zaheri, Wei Gao, Cheryl Hayashi and Horacio D. Espinosa

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770031

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      Horacio D. Espinosa and co-workers present a nanoscale experimental – theoretical methodology to reveal the hierarchical structure and properties of the exoskeleton of arthropods in article number 1603993. As a case study, they characterize the helicoidal fiber structure present in the beetle's elytra and identify the fiber anisotropic elastic constants.

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      Phototransistors: High-Performance UV–Vis–NIR Phototransistors Based on Single-Crystalline Organic Semiconductor–Gold Hybrid Nanomaterials (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Ji Hyung Jung, Min Ji Yoon, Ju Won Lim, Yoon Ho Lee, Kang Eun Lee, Dong Ha Kim and Joon Hak Oh

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770032

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      In article number 1604528, Dong Ha Kim, Joon Hak Oh, and co-workers report on the optoelectrical performance of novel hybrid phototransistors. Based on gold nanorods-decorated n-type single crystalline organic semiconductor nanowires, the devices achieve synergies between organic nanowire photoconductance, scattering, and local palsmon resonance of the gold nanorods. Comparable performance to inorganic devices and broad spectral responsivity are achieved.

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      Nanosensors: Multifunctional Materials: A Case Study of the Effects of Metal Doping on ZnO Tetrapods with Bismuth and Tin Oxides (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Vasile Postica, Jorit Gröttrup, Rainer Adelung, Oleg Lupan, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Nora H. de Leeuw, Nicolai Ababii, José F. C. Carreira, Joana Rodrigues, Nebiha Ben Sedrine, Maria Rosário Correia, Teresa Monteiro, Victor Sontea and Yogendra Kumar Mishra

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770036

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      Hybrid nanostructures from metal oxides are promising for sensing applications. The synthesis of hybrid networks and single structures based on ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-T) with MexOy and ZnxMe1−xOy (Me = Bi and Sn) is described by Rainer Adelung, Oleg Lupan, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, and co-workers in article number 1604676. ZnO-T with Zn2SnO4 networks allows change in selectivity from H2 gas to CO gas with high response.

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      Organic Phototransistors: High-Performance Organic Heterojunction Phototransistors Based on Highly Ordered Copper Phthalocyanine/para-Sexiphenyl Thin Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Chuan Qian, Jia Sun, Ling-An Kong, Guangyang Gou, Menglong Zhu, Yongbo Yuan, Han Huang, Yongli Gao and Junliang Yang

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770037

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      High-performance organic phototransistors are fabricated by Jia Sun, Junliang Yang, and co-workers in article number 1604933, by using a combination of organic heterojunction and molecular template growth. The phototransistors based on highly ordered copper phthalocyanine thin film grown on para-sexiphenyl template layer produce a high photoresponsivity up to 4.3 × 102 AW−1, as well as a high ratio of photocurrent and dark current up to 2.2 × 104.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770033

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770034

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    1. Light Manipulation by Guanine Crystals in Organisms: Biogenic Scatterers, Mirrors, Multilayer Reflectors and Photonic Crystals

      Dvir Gur, Benjamin A. Palmer, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603514

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      How are organisms able to construct and control diffuse scatterers in white spiders, broadband and narrowband reflectors in fish scales, tunable photonic crystals in chameleons and copepods, and image-forming mirrors in scallop eyes? Just by varying the size, morphology, and arrangement of the guanine crystals in their cells.

  8. Full Papers

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    1. High-Performance UV–Vis–NIR Phototransistors Based on Single-Crystalline Organic Semiconductor–Gold Hybrid Nanomaterials

      Ji Hyung Jung, Min Ji Yoon, Ju Won Lim, Yoon Ho Lee, Kang Eun Lee, Dong Ha Kim and Joon Hak Oh

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604528

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      Optoelectrical performances of phototransistors based on gold nanorods-decorated n-type single-crystalline organic semiconductor nanowires are reported. Owing to the synergy among the excellent photo-conducting characteristics of organic nanowire, the scattering effect and localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanorods, the hybrid system exhibits broad spectral responsivity with unprecedented performances that are comparable to those of inorganic materials-based phototransistors.

    2. Activating Basal Planes and S-Terminated Edges of MoS2 toward More Efficient Hydrogen Evolution

      Xiaolei Huang, Mei Leng, Wen Xiao, Meng Li, Jun Ding, Teck Leong Tan, Wee Siang Vincent Lee and Junmin Xue

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604943

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      P-doped MoS2 is synthesized via a facile, efficient, and low-temperature non-metal doping method, whereby O-doping plays a crucial role in lowering the formation energies. P-doping can dramatically decrease hydrogen evolution reaction overpotential due to the lowering of Mo valance charge, hence promoting electron transfer from MoS2 to hydrogen ions.

    3. Selenium-Containing Polymer@Metal-Organic Frameworks Nanocomposites as an Efficient Multiresponsive Drug Delivery System

      Weiqiang Zhou, Lu Wang, Feng Li, Weina Zhang, Wei Huang, Fengwei Huo and Huaping Xu

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605465

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      The multiresponsive P@ZIF-8 as an advanced biocompatible drug delivery system (DDS) has been successfully prepared. The as-prepared P@ZIF-8 has excellent biocompatibility, good loading capacity, and controllable drug release and is suitable for doxorubicin storage/release as a smart DDS. These results suggest that hybrid nanocomposites may provide new possibilities for controllable drug release in biomaterials.

    4. Impact of Crystal Surface on Photoexcited States in Organic–Inorganic Perovskites

      Susanne T. Birkhold, Eugen Zimmermann, Tom Kollek, Daniel Wurmbrand, Sebastian Polarz and Lukas Schmidt-Mende

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604995

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      A comparison of electron-rich and isolating surface passivation of submicrometer sized CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals reveals the presence of positively charged trap states at the crystal surface. Photoluminescence measurements at different temperatures demonstrate that these surface trap states cause surface lattice distortions and nonradiative recombination at room temperature and energy transfer from free excitons to bound excitons at low temperatures.

    5. Active Regulation of On-Demand Drug Delivery by Magnetically Triggerable Microspouters

      Ali Shademani, Hongbin Zhang, John K. Jackson and Mu Chiao

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604558

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      A triggerable device, termed a microspouter, is designed and fabricated for active and precise control of localized drug delivery. It is able to be triggered to spout drug solution on demand through external magnetic stimuli to achieve a safe and long-time controlled drug release.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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      Silicon Microfabrication: Controlled Microfabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Structures in Silicon at the Highest Etching Rates: The Role of H2O2 in the Anodic Dissolution of Silicon in Acidic Electrolytes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2017)

      Chiara Cozzi, Giovanni Polito, Kurt W. Kolasinski and Giuseppe Barillaro

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770035

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      In article number 1604310, Giuseppe Barillaro and co-workers show the synergistic cooperation of HF and H2O2 molecules in enhancing the controlled dissolution rate of silicon under anodic biasing. This enables the room-temperature fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (from 10 to 100) microstructures in silicon at record etching rates (from 3 to 10 μm min−1) that were previously unattainable for both commercial and research technologies.

  10. Full Papers

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    1. Controlled Microfabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Structures in Silicon at the Highest Etching Rates: The Role of H2O2 in the Anodic Dissolution of Silicon in Acidic Electrolytes

      Chiara Cozzi, Giovanni Polito, Kurt W. Kolasinski and Giuseppe Barillaro

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604310

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      In this work, Giuseppe Barillaro and co-workers show that the addition of H2O2 to a standard aqueous hydrofluoric (HF) acid electrolyte allows a dramatic change in the stoichiometry of the silicon dissolution process under anodic biasing to be achieved without loss of etching control accuracy at the higher depths. This enables the room temperature fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (from 10 to 100) micro­structures in silicon at etching rates (from 3 to 10 µm min−1) that were previously unattainable.

    2. Hydrogels That Actuate Selectively in Response to Organophosphates

      Manos Gkikas, Reginald K. Avery, Carolyn E. Mills, Ramanathan Nagarajan, Eugene Wilusz and Bradley D. Olsen

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602784

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      Acrylamide-based hydrogels containing oxime pendant groups are shown to decontaminate and actuate in response to contact with V-type organophosphates such as malaoxon. The mechanical actuation, leading to pore closing, is the result of disulfide cross-link cleavage triggered by the organophosphate decontamination products, yielding dissolution or swelling of the hydrogel. This technology is applied in both hydrogel sheets and hydrogel-impregnated fabrics.

    3. Photophysical Study of DPPTT-T/PC70BM Blends and Solar Devices as a Function of Fullerene Loading: An Insight into EQE Limitations of DPP-Based Polymers

      Elisa Collado-Fregoso, Florent Deledalle, Hendrik Utzat, Pabitra S. Tuladhar, Stoichko D. Dimitrov, Alexander Gillett, Ching-Hong Tan, Weimin Zhang, Iain McCulloch and James R. Durrant

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604426

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      Relative integrated EQE (Int EQE) in the fullerene and polymer absorbing areas tracks to a large extent the exciton losses as calculated from the relative photoluminescence quenching (PLQ) efficiency after excitation of the fullerene and polymer.

    4. Determination of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene for Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Carcinogens by a Lanthanide-functionalized Metal-Organic Framework Sensor

      Ji-Na Hao and Bing Yan

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603856

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      A novel europium-functionalized metal-organic framework is constructed that can act as the first example of a fluorescent sensor for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, which is the metabolite and biomarker of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons carcinogens.

    5. Ag/Ag2S Nanocrystals for High Sensitivity Near-Infrared Luminescence Nanothermometry

      Diego Ruiz, Blanca del Rosal, María Acebrón, Cristina Palencia, Chen Sun, Juan Cabanillas-González, Miguel López-Haro, Ana B. Hungría, Daniel Jaque and Beatriz H. Juarez

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604629

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      The outstanding infrared fluorescence thermal sensing capabilities of Ag2S nanocrystals are reported. Ag2S nanocrystals are here introduced to the scientific community as thermal nanoprobes capable of real-time subcutaneous contactless temperature sensing with a subdegree resolution. In combination with their long-term stability and low toxicity, their thermal sensing capabilities make Ag2S nanocrystals unique bioprobes.

    6. Peptide-Passivated Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Based on Synergistic Effect between Amino and Carboxylic Functional Groups

      Binbin Luo, Sara Bonabi Naghadeh, A'Lester Allen, Xueming Li and Jin Z. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604018

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      Peptides with different lengths are used in the synthesis of perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) as capping ligands. PNCspeptide with tunable size (≈3.9 to 8.6 nm), prepared by adjusting the concentration of the peptides, exhibit size-dependent optical properties due to quantum confinement effect. Such PNCs with peptides conjugated on their surface have potential applications in biomedicine, including optical sensing and imaging.

    7. Wearable Force Touch Sensor Array Using a Flexible and Transparent Electrode

      Jun-Kyul Song, Donghee Son, Jaemin Kim, Young Jin Yoo, Gil Ju Lee, Liu Wang, Moon Kee Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Mincheol Lee, Kyungsik Do, Ja Hoon Koo, Nanshu Lu, Ji Hoon Kim, Taeghwan Hyeon, Young Min Song and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605286

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      A novel transparent and flexible electrode, composed of an epoxy-copper-indium tin oxide (ECI) multilayer is presented. Enhanced optical transparency, mechanical deformability, and electrical conductivity of the ECI multilayer allow for the development of a transparent and wearable human–machine interface system. The system is composed of the touch and pressure sensor array multiplexed by Si nanomembrane diodes and is integrated with wearable quantum dot light-emitting diodes. A drone can be wirelessly controlled by the developed wearable force touch sensor array.

    8. AFM Identification of Beetle Exocuticle: Bouligand Structure and Nanofiber Anisotropic Elastic Properties

      Ruiguo Yang, Alireza Zaheri, Wei Gao, Cheryl Hayashi and Horacio D. Espinosa

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603993

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      Using beetle's exocuticle as a model system, an atomic force microscopy-based experimental–theoretical methodology is developed to characterize its helicoidal fiber structure and identify anisotropic material properties of constituent nanofibers. The method is applicable to other biomaterial architectures.

    9. Multifunctional Materials: A Case Study of the Effects of Metal Doping on ZnO Tetrapods with Bismuth and Tin Oxides

      Vasile Postica, Jorit Gröttrup, Rainer Adelung, Oleg Lupan, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Nora H. de Leeuw, Nicolai Ababii, José F. C. Carreira, Joana Rodrigues, Nebiha Ben Sedrine, Maria Rosário Correia, Teresa Monteiro, Victor Sontea and Yogendra Kumar Mishra

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604676

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      Gas sensing and optical properties of hybrid 3D ZnO-T (tetrapods) with Bi2O3 and Zn2SnO4 networks are reported. The investigations reveal improved gas sensing performances of hybrid networks compared with pure ZnO-T (tetrapod) networks. The described synthesis strategy serves as an excellent method to fabricate enhanced and selective gas sensors. ZnO-T-Bi2O3 hybrids enhance H2 gas response whereas ZnO-T-Zn2SnO4 changes selectivity to CO.

    10. High-Performance Organic Heterojunction Phototransistors Based on Highly Ordered Copper Phthalocyanine/para-Sexiphenyl Thin Films

      Chuan Qian, Jia Sun, Ling-An Kong, Guangyang Gou, Menglong Zhu, Yongbo Yuan, Han Huang, Yongli Gao and Junliang Yang

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604933

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      High-performance organic heterojunction phototransistors are fabricated using highly ordered copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and para-sexiphenyl (p-6P) thin films. The ratio of photocurrent and dark current and photoresponsivity reach to about 2.2 × 104 and 4.3 × 102 A W−1, respectively. A detailed study is carried out with current sensing atomic force microscopy.

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