Reduction of Biofilm Infection Risks and Promotion of Osteointegration for Optimized Surfaces of Titanium Implants

Authors

  • Michael Gasik,

    Corresponding author
    1. Aalto University Foundation, School of Chemical Technology, P. O. Box 16200, FIN-00076 AALTO, Finland
    • Aalto University Foundation, School of Chemical Technology, P. O. Box 16200, FIN-00076 AALTO, Finland.

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  • Lieve Van Mellaert,

    1. Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rega Institute for medical research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
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  • Dorothée Pierron,

    1. LEMI–Laboratoire d'Evaluation des Matériels Implantables, Technopole Bordeaux-Montesquieu, 2 allée François Magendie, F-33650 Martillac, France
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  • Annabel Braem,

    1. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium
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  • Dorien Hofmans,

    1. Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rega Institute for medical research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
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  • Evelien De Waelheyns,

    1. Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rega Institute for medical research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
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  • Jozef Anné,

    1. Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rega Institute for medical research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
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  • Marie-Françoise Harmand,

    1. LEMI–Laboratoire d'Evaluation des Matériels Implantables, Technopole Bordeaux-Montesquieu, 2 allée François Magendie, F-33650 Martillac, France
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  • Jozef Vleugels

    1. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium
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Abstract

Titanium-based implants are widely used in modern clinical practice; however, complications associated with implants due to bacterial-induced infections arise frequently, caused mainly by staphylococci, streptococci, Pseudomonas spp. and coliform bacteria. Although increased hydrophilicity of the biomaterial surface is known to be beneficial in minimizing the biofilm, quantitative analyses between the actual implant parameters and bacterial development are scarce. Here, the results of in vitro studies of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis proliferation on uncoated and coated titanium materials with different roughness, porosity, topology, and hydrophilicity are shown. The same materials have been tested in parallel with respect to human osteogenic and endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The experimental data processed by meta-analysis are indicating the possibility of decreasing the biofilm formation by 80–90% for flat substrates versus untreated plasma-sprayed porous titanium and by 65–95% for other porous titanium coatings. It is also shown that optimized surfaces would lead to 10–50% enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation versus reference porous titanium coatings. This presents an opportunity to manufacture implants with intrinsic reduced infection risk, yet without the additional use of antibacterial substances.

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