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Keywords:

  • biomimetics;
  • glycopolymer brush;
  • surface modification;
  • hemocompatibile materials;
  • surface induced thrombus generation

Abstract

Glycocalyx mimicking glycopolymer brushes presenting mannose, galactose and glucose residues in the pyranose form, similar to those present on cell surfaces, were synthesized on planar substrates (Si wafer, gold chip) and monodispersed polystyrene (PS) particles, and the interaction of blood to these surfaces were studied using various methods with the goal of producing a hemocompatible surface. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and gel analyses showed that the total protein adsorption from plasma was greatly reduced, as low as 24.3 ng/cm2 from undiluted plasma on the glucose carrying brush. The protein adsorption decreased with increasing grafting density of the brushes. It was also found that the protein adsorption varied with the anticoagulant used for blood collection; much higher amount of protein was adsorbed from heparinzied plasma than citrated plasma. Proteomics protein identification analysis revealed that protein adsorption from plasma depended on the type of sugar residue present on the surface as well as the type of anticoagulant. All the three types of glycopolymer brushes showed similar level of platelet activation as that of buffer control irrespective of the nature of carbohydrate residue. However, the number of adhered platelet and their morphology depended on the type of carbohydrate residue present on the brush. On glucose brush, the extent of platelet adhesion and spreading was significantly lowered compared to other brushes. All the glycopolymer brushes were neutral to blood coagulation as indicated by thromboelastography analysis. The glucose brush gave a slightly longer initial coagulation time suggesting that this surface may be more biocompatible. Our data demonstrate that the structure of carbohydrate residue is an important factor in the design of synthetic blood contacting surface based on glycopolymer.