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Geometry as a Factor for Tissue Growth: Towards Shape Optimization of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Authors

  • Cécile M. Bidan,

    1. Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam, Germany
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  • Krishna P. Kommareddy,

    1. Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam, Germany
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  • Monika Rumpler,

    1. Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1th Medical Department, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria
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  • Philip Kollmannsberger,

    1. Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam, Germany
    2. Department of Health Sciences and Technology (D-HEST), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Peter Fratzl,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam, Germany
    • Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam, Germany.
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  • John W. C. Dunlop

    1. Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam, Germany
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Abstract

Scaffolds for tissue engineering are usually designed to support cell viability with large adhesion surfaces and high permeability to nutrients and oxygen. Recent experiments support the idea that, in addition to surface roughness, elasticity and chemistry, the macroscopic geometry of the substrate also contributes to control the kinetics of tissue deposition. In this study, a previously proposed model for the behavior of osteoblasts on curved surfaces is used to predict the growth of bone matrix tissue in pores of different shapes. These predictions are compared to in vitro experiments with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells cultivated in two-millimeter thick hydroxyapatite plates containing prismatic pores with square- or cross-shaped sections. The amount and shape of the tissue formed in the pores measured by phase contrast microscopy confirms the predictions of the model. In cross-shaped pores, the initial overall tissue deposition is twice as fast as in square-shaped pores. These results suggest that the optimization of pore shapes may improve the speed of ingrowth of bone tissue into porous scaffolds.

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