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Keywords:

  • chitosan;
  • aligned;
  • mechanical properties;
  • myotubes;
  • tubular pores
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

3D, uniaxially aligned, microtubular, porous chitosan scaffolds prepared via directional freeze-drying support the formation of large anisotropic myotubes. Myotubes of ∼550 μm long and ∼50 μm diameter are grown in the scaffolds after two weeks of culture. Porous chitosan scaffolds of varying pore architectures and mechanical properties can be readily produced using this fabrication process for engineering various anisotropic tissues.