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Keywords:

  • intravitreal administration;
  • monolithic assembly;
  • ocular disease;
  • tower microneedle;
  • reverse drawing lithography
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The “tower microneedle” (TM) via reverse drawing lithography for intravitreal injection by fabricating a long hollow microneedle on the blunt hypodermic needle: The hollow hole between the microneedle and hypodermic needle is aligned concentrically, and fifteen degree bevel angle is introduced to TM by laser cutting to achieve intravitreal injection with minimal damage to eye tissue.