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Keywords:

  • composite scaffold;
  • polycaprolactone;
  • bone material characterization;
  • tissue engineering;
  • additive manufacturing
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A higher degree of mineralization is found within scaffold groups implanted with cells compared to scaffold alone, demonstrating greater bone regenerative potential of cell-scaffold constructs Tissue engineered bone analysed using ESEM and SAXS demonstrates bone formation within the scaffold to be preferentially aligned around the scaffold struts. The mineral particles are not shown to orientate around the osteons within the native bone.