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Keywords:

  • inkjet printing;
  • hierarchical structures;
  • human tissue chip;
  • biomedical application;
  • tissue engineering
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Rapid and automatic development of three-dimensional (3D) human micro-tissue chips which integrate over 400 micro-arrays of simplified multilayered structures is carried out using inkjet printing technology. Comprehensive high-throughput assays of liver functions using the simplified 3D liver structures revealed highest functions of a sandwich structure of endothelial cells and hepatocytes. These 3D-human tissue chips may enable “total-human tissue models” for tailor-made drug screening.