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Eyes on 3D-Current 3D Biomimetic Disease Concept Models and Potential Applications in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Authors

  • Beatrix Feigl,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove 4059, Queensland, Australia
    2. School of Biomedical Sciences, QUT, Brisbane 4059, Queensland, Australia
    3. Queensland Eye Institute, South Brisbane 4101, Queensland, Australia
    • Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove 4059, Queensland, Australia.
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  • Dietmar Hutmacher

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove 4059, Queensland, Australia
    2. School of Biomedical Sciences, QUT, Brisbane 4059, Queensland, Australia
    • Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove 4059, Queensland, Australia.
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Abstract

Three-dimensional cellular models that mimic disease are being increasingly investigated and have opened an exciting new research area into understanding pathomechanisms. The advantage of 3D in vitro disease models is that they allow systematic and in-depth studies of physiological and pathophysiological processes with less costs and ethical concerns that have arisen with animal models. The purpose of the 3D approach is to allow crosstalk between cells and microenvironment, and with cues from the microenvironment, cells can assemble their niche similar to in vivo conditions. The use of 3D models for mimicking disease processes such as cancer, osteoarthritis etc., is only emerging and allows multidisciplinary teams consisting of tissue engineers, biologist biomaterial scientists and clinicians to work closely together. While in vitro systems require rigorous testing before they can be considered as replicates of the in vivo model, major steps have been made, suggesting that they will become powerful tools for studying physiological and pathophysiological processes. This paper aims to summarize some of the existing 3D models and proposes a novel 3D model of the eye structures that are involved in the most common cause of blindness in the Western World, namely age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

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