Elaborating a bone replacement using tissue-engineering strategies for bone repair seems to be a promising remedy. However, previous platforms are limited in constructing three-dimensional porous scaffolds and neglected the critical importance of periosteum (a pivotal source of osteogenic cells for bone regeneration). We report here an innovative method using the periosteum as a template to replicate its exquisite morphologies onto the surfaces of biomaterials. The precise topographic cues (grooved micropatterns) on the surface of collagen membrane inherited from the periosteum effectively directed cell alignment as the way of natural periosteum. Besides, we placed the stem-cell and endothelial-cell-laden collagen membrane (pseudo-periosteum) onto a three-dimensional porous scaffold. The pseudo-periosteum-covered scaffolds showed remarkable osteogenesis when compared with the pseudo-periosteum-free scaffolds, indicating the significant importance of pseudo-periosteum on bone regeneration. This study gives a novel concept for the construction of bone tissue engineering scaffold and may provide new insight for periosteum research.