Nano-GO is a graphene derivative with a 2D atomic layer of sp2 bonded carbon atoms in hexagonal conformation together with sp3 domains with carbon atoms linked to oxygen functional groups. The supremacy of nano-GO resides essentially in its own intrinsic chemical and physical structure, which confers an extraordinary chemical versatility, high aspect ratio and unusual physical properties. The chemical versatility of nano-GO arises from the oxygen functional groups on the carbon structure that make possible its relatively easy functionalization, under mild conditions, with organic molecules or biological structures in covalent or non-covalent linkage. The synergistic effects resulting from the assembly of well-defined structures at nano-GO surface, in addition to its intrinsic optical, mechanical and electronic properties, allow the development of new multifunctional hybrid materials with a high potential in multimodal cancer therapy. Herein, a comprehensive review of the fundamental properties of nano-GO requirements for cancer therapy and the first developments of nano-GO as a platform for this purpose is presented.