In this review the latest developments regarding the use of self-assembled copolymers for the fabrication of nanomaterials will be presented and their real potential evaluated. Most of the strategies reported so far are herewith classified under two main approaches: a) use of block copolymers as nanostructured materials, either “as they are” or through a selective isolation of one or more component blocks, and b) as templates for the synthesis of metallic or semiconducting nanomaterials. The problems of the orientation and large-scale order of self-organizing block copolymer mesophases will be also introduced, due to their importance as a route towards further improvements of the nanofabrication means.
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