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Gel-Layer-Assisted Directional Electropolymerization: A Versatile Method for High-Resolution Volume and Surface Patterning of Flexible Substrates with Conjugated Polymers


  • The authors acknowledge the financial support of this work by the European Commission (project CORTEX, No. IST-1999-10236). We also thank Ing. S. Nitsche from CRMC-N in Marseille, France, for SEM images, and Dr. Andrew Charalambous from UCL London, UK, for fruitful discussions.


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Conducting polymer patterns are grown through flexible substrates using directional electropolymerization. An isolating gel layer between a polycarbonate membrane and a patterned anode allows reproduction of sub-ten-micrometer features (see Figure) throughout the volume of the membrane to the opposite side.

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