Artificial Muscles with Tactile Sensitivity


  • The authors acknowledge financial support form the Spaniard Ministry of Science and Technology project BQ2001-0477, from the Seneca Foundation PI-25/00827/FS/01, and from ICETEX-Prosantander in Colombia.


All-polymeric triple-layer artificial muscles capable of pushing obstacles that they meet during their angular movement are presented (see Figure). Upon contact of the muscle with an obstacle, a potential step proportional to the weight of the object evolves. Thus the muscle works simultaneously as an actuator and a tactile sensor.