A molecular-level coding method utilizing DNA base pairs as code units has been systemized. The system consists of four steps: encoding, encrypting, decrypting and decoding (see Figure), which are realized by tailor-made nanohybrids (DNA–layered double hydroxide (LDH) and polypyrrole–maghemite). The nanohybrids give solutions to the inherent problems which hamper DNA molecular code systems; stability in encrypting and rapidity in analysis.
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