Focused ion beam (FIB) lithography can be used to selectively close nanochannels in an ordered array on an anodic-alumina film, producing templates with the nanochannels arranged in custom-designed geometries (see Figure). Nanochannel closing can be monitored by in-situ FIB imaging. Nanodevices such as photonic-crystal waveguides could be fabricated using this technique.
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