Titania foams (see Figure) can be produced using a non-static air–liquid foaming sol–gel process where nitrogen is bubbled through a mixture of a surfactant and a sol–gel precursor. Either anatase or rutile phase mesoporous titania foams are produced upon thermal treatment. Macroscopic cell morphologies can be tuned by changing the air-to-liquid-foam ratios and the size of the nitrogen bubbles, while wall topologies can be varied by changing surfactant.
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