Tuning of Metal Work Functions with Self-Assembled Monolayers


  • We acknowledge Mark-Jan Spijkman, Remco Foekema, Jur Wildeman and Minte Mulder for their assistance. The work of MMM and TvW forms part of the research program of the Dutch Polymer Institute (#323, #275).


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Work functions of gold and silver are varied by over 1.4 and 1.7 eV, respectively, by using self-assembled monolayers. Using these modified electrodes, the hole current in a poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)–1,4-phenylene vinylene) light-emitting diode is tuned by more than six orders of magnitude (see Figure). Suppression of the hole current enables measurement of the electron current in a polymer/polymer blend photovoltaic cell.