Three-terminal electrochemical transistors are manufactured from thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid), and form the basis of oscillatory and digital circuits, thus opening the door for logic systems based on \(electronic paper\). The transistors use ions and electrons as signal carriers, and operate at low voltages. Such low-cost digital circuitry may allow the use of electronics in systems and materials where it has been previously unused.
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