The water contact angle of nanostructured polystyrene surfaces can reach as high as 162°, compared with 95° for native polystyrene surfaces, and they possess a high water adhesion force. Surfaces coated with polystyrene nanotubes (see Figure) created using an alumina membrane template mimic the keratinous hairs in a gecko's feet, providing a large surface area for adhesion through van der Waals' forces.
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