Upright-standing nanocrystalline ZnO films, with the c-axis parallel to the substrate, are fabricated by the pyrolysis of films made of upright-standing sheets of layered hydroxide zinc carbonate (LHZC) (see Figure). Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) prepared using the ZnO films possess the highest level of conversion efficiency for 1.5 AM illumination in ZnO DSCs due to the specific morphology of the ZnO electrode.
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