In this review, the progress made in the last ten years concerning the synthesis of porous carbon materials is summarized. Porous carbon materials with various pore sizes and pore structures have been synthesized using several different routes. Microporous activated carbons have been synthesized through the activation process. Ordered microporous carbon materials have been synthesized using zeolites as templates. Mesoporous carbons with a disordered pore structure have been synthesized using various methods, including catalytic activation using metal species, carbonization of polymer/polymer blends, carbonization of organic aerogels, and template synthesis using silica nanoparticles. Ordered mesoporous carbons with various pore structures have been synthesized using mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-48, HMS, SBA-15, MCF, and MSU-X as templates. Ordered mesoporous carbons with graphitic pore walls have been synthesized using soft-carbon sources that can be converted to highly ordered graphite at high temperature. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon materials have been synthesized using various designed silica templates. Some of these mesoporous carbon materials have successfully been used as adsorbents for bulky pollutants, as electrodes for supercapacitors and fuel cells, and as hosts for enzyme immobilization. Ordered macroporous carbon materials have been synthesized using colloidal crystals as templates. One-dimensional carbon nanostructured materials have been fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a template.