Protonated Titanates and TiO2 Nanostructured Materials: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications


  • The authors are grateful to Dr. Alexei Lapkin (University of Bath) and Prof. John Owen (University of Southampton) for stimulating discussions.


Tubular and fibrous nanostructures of titanates have recently been synthesized and characterized. Three general approaches (template assisted, anodic oxidation, and alkaline hydrothermal) for the preparation of nanostructured titanate and TiO2 are reviewed. The crystal structures, morphologies, and mechanism of formation of nanostructured titanates produced by the alkaline hydrothermal method are critically discussed. The physicochemical properties of nanostructured titanates are highlighted and the links between properties and applications are emphasized. Examples of early applications of nanostructured titanates in catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, lithium batteries, hydrogen storage, and solar-cell technologies are reviewed. The stability of titanate nanotubes at elevated temperatures and in acid media is considered.