The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of current research activities that center on superparamagnetic colloids. We begin with an overview of synthetic strategies that have been developed for generating both nanoscale and mesoscale superparamagnetic colloids, with a focus on those systems that can be prepared as monodisperse samples and in relatively large quantities. We then discuss a variety of techniques that have been exploited for modifying surface properties, as well as for controlling the assembly and patterning of these magnetically active colloids. Towards the end, we highlight a range of innovative applications enabled by the unique combination of superparamagnetism and colloidal suspension. We conclude this review article with personal remarks and perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this area might be directed.