Direct Printing of 3D and Curvilinear Micrometer-Sized Architectures into Solid Substrates with Sub-micrometer Resolution


  • This work was supported by NSF-CAREER CTS-0547633, Camille and Henry Dreyfus New Faculty Award, and 3M Non-Tenured Faculty Award (to B. A. G.). C. J. C. was supported by an NU Presidential Fellowship, and K. B. was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. The authors thank Dr. Marcin Fialkowski for helpful discussions. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the author.


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Micropatterned hydrogel stamps carrying etchant solutions are used to microstructure glass and silicon with complex 3D architectures (see figure and inside cover). A two-way reaction–diffusion mechanism initiated from the stamp enables direct printing of entire microdevices (left to right: two-level microfluidic channels, curvilinear microlenses in glass, nanostructured silicon) into solid substrates with resolution down to 300 nm.