Get access
Advanced Materials

Introducing Defects in 3D Photonic Crystals: State of the Art

Authors

  • P. V. Braun,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • S. A. Rinne,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • F. García-Santamaría

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

  • The authors thank the following for support: the U. S. Army Research Laboratory and the U. S. Army Research Office grant DAAD19-03-1-0227; the National Science Foundation; and the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Materials Sciences grant DEFG02-91ER45439, through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Abstract

3D photonic crystals (PhCs) and photonic bandgap (PBG) materials have attracted considerable scientific and technological interest. In order to provide functionality to PhCs, the introduction of controlled defects is necessary; the importance of defects in PhCs is comparable to that of dopants in semiconductors. Over the past few years, significant advances have been achieved through a diverse set of fabrication techniques. While for some routes to 3D PhCs, such as conventional lithography, the incorporation of defects is relatively straightforward; other methods, for example, self-assembly of colloidal crystals (CCs) or holography, require new external methods for defect incorporation. In this review, we will cover the state of the art in the design and fabrication of defects within 3D PhCs. The figure displays a fluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy image of a y-splitter defect formed through two-photon polymerization within a CC.

Get access to the full text of this article

Ancillary