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Perfecting Imperfection—Designer Defects in Colloidal Photonic Crystals

Authors

  • A. Arsenault,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
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  • F. Fleischhaker,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
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  • G. von Freymann,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
    2. Institut für Nanotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtzgemeinschaft, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
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  • V. Kitaev,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
    2. Department of Chemistry, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo N2 L 3C5, ON, Canada
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  • H. Miguez,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
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  • A. Mihi,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
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  • N. Tétreault,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
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  • E. Vekris,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
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  • I. Manners,

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
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  • S. Aitchison,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
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  • D. Perovic,

    1. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Rd., Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada
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  • G. A. Ozin

    1. Materials Chemistry and Polymer Research Groups, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
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  • G. A. O. and I. M. are Government of Canada Research Chairs in Materials and Polymer Chemistry. G. A. O., I. M., V. K., D. P., and S. A. are grateful to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for financial support of this work. A. A. acknowledges NSERC for a graduate scholarship. F. F. thanks the “Fonds der chemischen Industrie” in Germany for a graduate scholarship. The research of G. v. F. is further supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through projects FR 1671/2-1 and FR 1671/4-3 (Emmy-Noether program). H. M. appreciates the financial support of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education under grant MAT2005-03028 and Ramón Areces Foundation.

Abstract

Current progress in the exciting and burgeoning field of functional defects in colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) is reported. After a brief introduction into the importance and nature of defects in CPCs the state-of-the-art in fabricating point, line, and planar defects is described. Measurement and characterization techniques as well as the corresponding theory are discussed. Besides normal, passive defects, the recent development of reversibly tunable defects adds important functionality. In particular, the addition of chemical functionality is demonstrated to open a path to a wide range of color readout devices for ultrasensitive optical detection of biomolecules and pharmaceuticals.

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