Direct Printing of Bioceramic Implants with Spatially Localized Angiogenic Factors


  • CJD and JEB contributed equally to this work. The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Mr. J. Binette, Mrs. Renee Paradis and Mrs. Catherine Gerard, advice of Prof. Marc McKee and the financial support of Canada Research Chair program (J. E. B.), Québec Ministère des Relations Internationales (Québec-Bavaria Exchange Program) PSR-SIIRI-029 IBI. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the author.


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Direct printing of brushite and hydroxyapatite bioceramics at room temperature is used to construct model implants onto which the angiogenic compounds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and copper sulfate were adsorbed. This low-temperature direct approach offers several practical advantages and may find application in bone grafting. The figure shows examples of complex shapes made of brushite.