A “forced” soft lithography (FSL) technique is described for production of micro- and nanostructures into the surface of polymers at room temperature. The technique can be used with polymer/mould combinations that are unsuitable for conventional soft lithography, and has been used to structure the surface of the Chitosan biopolymer. Theoretical descriptions of the filling of the mould cavities and the possible formation of bubbles in the polymer are given.
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