Nonradiative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a luminescent quantum dot (QD) donor and a proximal dye brought in close proximity of the QD surface via conjugation with a dye-labeled peptide (or a protein) is shown (see figure). The system is excited with near IR irradiation (well below the absorption band of the QD), via a fast two-photon process, which produces a FRET signal with very low background contribution due to a substantially reduced nonlinear direct excitation of the dye.
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