Universal Gradient Substrates for “Click” Biofunctionalization


  • The authors gratefully acknowledge NIST/NRC Postdoctoral Fellowships (N.D.G. and K.A.L.) from the National Research Council and an IMS award from the National Institute of Standards and Technology for supporting this research. We thank Dr. Matthew J. Kipper for insightful discussions. This article, a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, is not subject to US copyright. Certain equipment and instruments or materials are identified in the paper to adequately specify the experimental details. Such identification does not imply recommendation by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials are necessarily the best available for the purpose. The “standard error of the mean” is the same as the “combined standard uncertainty of the mean” for the purposes of this work. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the author.


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Versatile templates for gradient immobilization of biomolecules by click chemistry are easily generated from reproducible and tunable surface energy gradients. An arginine–glycine–aspartate (RGD) peptide density gradient controls cell adhesion (see figure), and demonstrates the utility of this fabrication process for making substrates that can screen cell response to bioactive materials.