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Keywords:

  • Bismuth;
  • Ferroelectric materials;
  • Titania
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The 3D domain structure in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12crystals is investigated by using piezoresponse force microscopy. Energetically favorable 90° domain walls with faceted structure are established on the surface along the a–b plane, while the 90° domain walls have complicated and curved surfaces along the c-axis inside the crystals (see figure). This domain structure can be explained by the strong interaction between the 90° domain walls and oxygen vacancies.