A hierarchically-structured ZnO film consisting of secondary colloidal spheres of ~ 300 nm in diameter and primary nanoparticles of ~ 20 nm in diameter is shown to have an ~ 83% improvement in the overall light conversion efficiency, when compared to commercially-obtained ZnO film with ~ 25 nm particles. This increase is attributed to the hierarchical structure, where the secondary colloidal spheres promote light scattering for enhanced photon absorption.
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