Light-Extraction Enhancement of GaInN Light-Emitting Diodes by Graded-Refractive-Index Indium Tin Oxide Anti-Reflection Contact


  • The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Samsung Electro-Mechanics Company, Sandia National Laboratories, Crystal IS Corporation, Troy Research Corporation, New York State Office of Science, Technology and Academic Research (NYSTAR), National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Energy (DOE). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.


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GaInN LEDs with a six-layer graded- refractive-index antireflection coating made entirely of indium tin oxide (ITO) are demonstrated to have 24.3 % higher light output than LEDs with dense ITO coating. The increased light-output of the LEDs with graded-refractive-index antireflection coating is attributed to the virtual elimination of Fresnel reflection and surface roughening of low-refractive index ITO.