e-Beam Nanopatterned Photo-Responsive Bacteriorhodopsin-Containing Hydrogels


  • J.T. is a Beckman Young Investigator and a recipient of a Hartwell Foundation Individual Biomedical Research Award. Microscopy instrumentation was provided by the Duke SMIF. We thank the Nanomechanics Lab at Duke University for access to additional instrumentation and Dr. Stefan Zauscher for helpful discussions. We also thank Dr. Matthew Libera for critical reading of the manuscript. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the authors.


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A photoresponsive nanopatterned hydrogel is demonstrated by combining a pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte, poly(acrylic acid), with bacteriorhodopsin, a light-activated proton pump capable of causing local pH changes. Utilizing electron-beam lithography (EBL) on glass substrates, surface-attached, nanopatterned hydrogels were fabricated capable of de-swelling upon green light illumination.